劇場へ見に行こう!今見るべき「サーカス」の魅力に迫る!


古い時代のサーカスの劇場での公演が、大勢の観客を集める為に使われる手段であったことはとても興味深い事です。

現在のサーカスの劇場公演においても、企業のイメージアップや商品の宣伝を目的として開催されるなど、新旧ともに大きな影響力が期待されるイベントです。

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サーカスの歴史から現代まで

劇場で楽しむサーカスの発祥と歴史的影響力

サーカスの始まりは古く、歴史的には大規模なイベントの開催を行う事で権威をアピールしていたローマ帝国の円形劇場が起源とする説が主流です。

サーカスの語源はラテン語の円形を意味する言葉で、その円形を基本とする劇場の中で、人を始め多くの生き物がする行動を、時の権力者や観客が楽しんできました。

円形のフィールドの方が角が無い為、四角いフィールドよりも複雑な動きができる事を発見したからで、サーカスの現在の形はこれと無縁ではありません。

多くの所では、演じる為の場所はほぼ円形と決まっている所が大半です。

ローマの頃は、今の公演では行われない競馬のようなものや、今も見られる動物使い、曲芸が見られました。

また、サーカスは劇場で行われるような大規模なものを特に指定した呼び方となっていますが、多くの場合、呼び名が見世物という呼称を使った小規模なものは、人の往来が盛んな地域で行われ、だいたいにおいて、怪しげな内容の催しを行って金銭を得ていたもので、にせ物や作り物を使ったものも多く、権力者たちの取り締まりが来てもすぐに逃げやすいようにしていたものまでありました。

そして、特に多くの人の興味を引く内容の出し物を行う場合、地域の権力者の庇護が無ければ劇場での公演は許されませんでした。

サーカスの二つのコンセプトが及ぼす世界観の違い

今行われているサーカスの内容は、おおよそ二種類に分けられます。

オーソドックスなサーカスのスタイルにこだわりを持ち、後継者の育成などにも熱心なサーカスがその一つで、あと一方は最新の映像処理技術を取り入れるなど、新しい視覚的な効果を導入する、より視覚での訴えかけに特化したサーカスに分類されています。

サーカスの新しい演出に刺激を受けた演劇でも同様の工夫があり、これからの劇場でのサーカス公演には、異なるジャンルの演じ手にとっても、異業種間の交流や、情報収集のメリットなど、多くの魅力を感じられるステージとなっています。

また、最新の演出に関わる事によって演技者のキャリアも豊かになるうえ、メディアの露出も上昇するため注目度が高まり、演技者としての露出度が増えるメリットが期待できます。

その為、一般的な劇場公演よりもサーカスでのキャリアが尊重される場合があり、若い時を過ぎても裏方に関わるなどで、経済的な安定を得られる事がメリットにもなっています。

後継者の育成をも考慮している場合、高齢の出演者を次々入れ替える事はあまり行われず、継続して同じ演じ手を雇う傾向が高く、若手への技術の継承が現場で行われます。

その為、演目が固定化されている場合が多くなり、観客動員も小さな子供が中心となる傾向が高くなっています。

それに反し新しい技術を導入するものでは、観客は若者が中心となり、スピーディーな内容を楽しむ傾向があり、出演者は常に最新の演出内容に応える為、綿密なミーティングとトレーニングを重ねて観客の要求に応えるよう努力を重ねます。

進化し続ける劇場でのサーカスの魅力は

サーカスは、ローマの円形劇場のような権力者の偉大さを讃える目的であった時代には、観客に対して大きな影響力を与えられる機会として利用されてきましたが、四角いフィールドから円形へ、また、小さな小屋から始まって大規模で壮大な劇場型へと変化を遂げてきた歴史は、多くの新しい試みの実験場ともなってきました。

照明で場面転換を行う演出や、クラウンが面白く笑わせる芸をはさんで場面を変更する方法、また、数ヶ所演じるフィールドを用意して同時に演技を進行させるなど、冒険的な演出はその都度大きな話題を生んできました。工夫を重ねて多くの魅力を盛り込んでいける所が、劇場で見るサーカスの大きな魅力となっています。

また、大規模な演目の空中ブランコやオートバイの曲乗り、人の身体能力をアピールする力自慢や柔軟な身体を駆使したアクロバットなども、一つ一つが完成された演目となっていて、これは新旧通じて世界中で楽しまれる定番演目です。

たとえ最新の技術を取り入れた演出方法であっても、先人の作り上げたものに恥じない内容を作りたいと考える出演者が中心になって、劇場での公演は完成度を増していきます。

演じる側の気持ちと観客の求める事がお互いに刺激しあう良好な関係であれば、この先も一層新旧のサーカス公演が、多くの魅力を発信し続ける可能性が高くなり、生の公演を劇場で見る価値はとても高いものとなります。

人が演じて、大勢の観客がそれを受け止めてどのような変化が楽しめるか、また、どうやったらお客さんにもっと楽しんで頂けるか、サーカスに関わる人すべてが今後も多くのアイデアを実行し続けるはずです。

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