クレジットカードとは?使い方や仕組みなど

クレジットカードは、有効に活用できれば便利なものであり、様々な特徴があります。

カードを作成する前に、どのようにして使うのか、仕組みがどうなっているのかなどを知っておくことで、より有効に活用できるようになります。

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クレジットカードを発行する

クレジットカードの使い方として、最初にカードを発行する必要があります。申し込み方法は様々であり、電話や書類の郵送、インターネットや店頭などがあります。

発行するには条件があり、18歳以上で高校生以外でなければなりません。

また、基本的に本人に安定した収入が求められますが、カードによっては、引き落とし口座に家族の口座を指定できるものがあり、この場合は、その家族に収入があれば利用できます。

申し込んでも、必ず作成できるものではなく、審査があります。提出した書類に虚偽の記載があったり、収入が不十分である、過去に問題を起こして個人信用情報機関に異動情報が残っているなど、カード会社から信用されないと、審査に落ちます。

審査の基準は、各社で異なっているので、初めて利用する場合には、発行しやすいところに申し込みを行うと良いでしょう。

いくらまで利用できるのか

クレジットカードは、利用したお金を後で支払うものなので、無条件に利用させると支払えなくなるリスクがあります。そのため、カード会社はその人の信用に基づいて、限度額を決める仕組みになっています。

このときに影響する要素に収入があり、釣り合わない限度額を希望しても通りません。

限度額は、カードの発行後でも変えることができます。半年以上遅延を起こさずに、継続して利用していれば信用を得られるので、増額申請を行い、審査に通れば引き上げられます。

また、優良顧客であると認められれば、自動的に引き上げられることもあります。

旅行など、一時的に出費が増えるので限度額を引き上げたい場合には、一時増額もできます。これも、審査が行われますが、通常の増額よりも通りやすくなります。

必要以上に限度額が高くなっているときは、申請して引き下げもできます。これは審査が不要ですが、引き上げの際は審査があるので注意しましょう。

どうやって支払いに使うのか

クレジットカードの店舗での使い方として、カード払いに対応していれば、レジなどに加盟しているブランドが表示されているので、そこに自分のカードに付帯しているブランドが含まれていれば利用できます。

有名なブランドでも、使えないことがあるので、普段利用する店がどのブランドに加盟しているのか調べておきましょう。

クレジットカードの支払い方法について、1回払いや分割払い、リボ払いなどがありますが、店舗によっては1回払いしか利用できないことがあります。支払い方法を選べる場合は、希望する方法を伝えましょう。

インターネットでの支払いに関しても同様に、加盟しているブランドであれば利用できます。

キャッシング機能を付けていれば、ATMなどからお金を引き出すこともできます。ただし、借金になり、返済するまでの日数に応じて利息が発生するので、利用しすぎないように注意が必要です。

カード会社はどうやって利益を出しているのか

クレジットカード会社は、手数料によって利益を得ています。これは、消費者と加盟店の両方に発生します。

消費者側の場合、無料のものもありますが、年会費が取られます。また、3回以上の分割払いやリボ払い、キャッシングを利用したときにも手数料が発生します。

支払いの負担を少なくするには、一括払いや2回払い、ボーナス払いを利用し、キャッシングは避けると良いでしょう。

消費者はあまり意識する必要はありませんが、加盟店側も利用した代金に応じて、手数料をカード会社に支払っています。クレジットカードに対応することで、客の増加を見込めますが、利益は圧迫されます。

これが、店舗によって利用できないブランドがある理由になります。また、店舗の中には、この手数料を補うために、現金払いでなければ、独自のサービスの対象外にするなどの対応をしているものもあります。

クレジットカードの利点とは

クレジットカードは、現金を持たずに済む以外にも、様々な利点があります。カード会社でポイントサービスを提供していることが多く、代金の支払いや商品との交換に使えます。

カード会社と提携している店舗で、特典を受けられるものもあります。

海外に行く場合には、クレジットカードに保険が付帯されているものが多いので、別途保険に入らなくてもある程度カバーできます。また、海外でも提携しているATMでキャッシングして現地通貨を引き出せるので、両替に行く手間省けて便利です。

想定よりもカード払いができず、現金が足りなくなることがあるので、役に立ちます。

利用を続けることで、クレジットヒストリーもできます。個人信用情報機関に記録される利用履歴であり、これを参照した金融機関などから信用を得られ、ローンを組む際の審査に通りやすくなるなどの利点があります。

ただし、遅延を起こしていると、逆に信用されなくなるので注意しましょう。

最後に

クレジットカードの使い方は難しいことはなく、現金払いよりも利点があるので、使える店舗であれば積極的に利用するとお得です。

ただし、使ったお金は必ず払わなければならないので、払えなくならないように利用状況は把握しておきましょう。

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