デビットカードとは?使い方や仕組みなど

デビットカードは、銀行の預金残高と連動しているタイプのカードです。

クレジットカードの国際ブランドを使って、口座から即時決済させる仕組みなので、クレジットカードと混同する人も多いでしょう。

使い方に工夫すれば、預金の範囲内で現金の管理ができるので、節約にも繋げられます。

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デビットカードの申込の手続き方法

デビットカードは、全ての銀行が対応しているわけではありません。最寄りの銀行で探すのが難しいのなら、ネット銀行やネット支店のある銀行に申し込むといいでしょう。

口座を開設する時に一緒に申し込めますし、後から即時決済機能付きのカードを申し込めます。キャッシュカードと一体型になっている物が多いですが、一部の金融機関では、デビットカードだけ単体で発行できることもあります。

金融機関により、利用できる国際ブランドが分かれていることから、利用できる店舗をカバーするために、複数の銀行のデビットカードを発行する方もいます。枚数制限などは特に設けられていませんので、安心してください。

カードを入手するには、追加発行やキャッシュカードからの切り替えなら、1週間程度でデビットカードが発行されます。

しかし、口座開設と同時に発行手続きをする場合は、3週間程度かかる場合がありますので、日にちに余裕を持って手続きするようにしてください。

デビットカードの仕組みと利用方法

デビットカードの仕組みは、各クレジットカードの国際ブランドを借りて、ATM等を利用しなくても、そのまま銀行引き落としがされて決済出来るようになっています。

店舗から決済する場合の一般的な利用の仕方は、4桁の暗証番号を入力し、決済を1回払いと告げることです。

ネットショップから決済をするには、決済画面で該当する国際ブランドを選択し、16桁のカード番号と利用期限の年月を入力するだけです。

場合によっては、裏面の右端3桁のセキュリティコードや、予め設定されたネット上で利用するためのパスワードも必要になるため、ほとんどクレジットカードの決済と変わらないでしょう。

1回払いしかできないのは、口座の残高が利用限度額となるためです。原則として審査が行われないことから、信用度が低く、分割やリボルビングによる支払いは選べません。

使い方で気をつけること

利用限度額が口座残高と同じになるので、事前に十分な金額を用意しないといけません。残高が足りないと決済不能になり、利用停止処分が下る場合もあります。

銀行によっては、信用情報に記載する所もありますし、利用期限が来た場合に更新不可となることもあります。

一度利用ができなくなると、口座やキャッシュカードは使えても、該当する銀行でデビットカードの再発行はできなくなるので、注意してください。

口座に、当座貸越の機能が設定されている場合は、万が一残高が不足していたとしても、自動で立替払いができ、後で返せます。

この機能が付いている場合、非常に便利なのですが、クレジットカードに加入申込をする時と同様に、審査が必要になります。

債務整理をして一定の年月が経たない方や、延滞等の事故情報が記載されている方は取得できませんので、他の銀行のカードを選ぶようにしてください。

一部では使えない所もある

デビットカードは、国内外の加盟店で決済利用できますが、口座にお金を入金させておいても、システムの都合上使えない店舗もあります。

例えば、月々の料金の支払いやガソリンスタンドの給油では、デビットカードの利用は難しいでしょう。

これらの決済は、給油前や実際の利用をする前、つまり、どれだけお金がかかるか利用金額が確定していないうちから、決済を認めるようにシステムに情報が流れます。

一方、デビットカードは口座の残高の範囲で決済するために、利用額が未確定の場合は、口座の残高が十分か判定できずに決済情報が来るので、対応が難しいでしょう。

金額が不確定の場合は、カード会社の審査で信用があると認められていることから、クレジットカードを使う方が望ましいと思われます。

ただし、ごく一部のガソリンスタンドや携帯電話会社の場合は、銀行や系列会社と提携関係にあるため、一部の銀行のデビットカードが料金の支払いに対応している場合がありますので、確認してみるといいでしょう。

残高不足をふせぐための工夫

店舗やネットショッピングで決済をする際に、預金口座に十分なお金があるか心配になることがあるでしょう。ATMを使ったり、銀行のサービスサイトに接続したりするのは、大変な場合があります。

スマートフォンを利用している方であれば、銀行の口座アプリを利用すると便利です。使う前にその場で、残高を確認できます。

ワンタッチで繋げるように設定をしておけば、楽に閲覧できます。ただ、安全のためにパスワードや暗証番号は定期的に変更するようにしてください。

複数のデビットカードを利用している場合や、銀行の口座アプリが使えない場合は、家計簿や資産管理のアプリを使うと便利です。

たいていのデビットカードは、オンラインでデータの取り込みができるため、1つのアプリからログインして、複数の銀行の残高を確認できるでしょう。

支出や費用、予算の管理もできますし、使い過ぎ防止も防げます。

最後に

デビットカードを、日々の暮らしに取り込めば、お金の使い方の勉強にもなります。

高校生も取得できることがあるので、一度に使える金額を決めて、決められた金額でやりくりする習慣がつくので、若いうちからお金の管理の仕方を覚えることもできます。

社会人でも便利な使い方ができるので、積極的に活用するといいでしょう。

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