【干ししいたけ】には食物繊維が豊富に含まれている!

干ししいたけには、食物繊維がたいへん豊富に含まれています。

1日必要摂取量が20グラムである食物繊維を、100グラム中になんと45グラムも含む干ししいたけを有効活用し、健康的な食生活を送りたいものです。

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食物繊維は第六の栄養素

干ししいたけには、非常に多くの食物繊維が含まれています。現在、食物繊維は第六の栄養素と呼ばれるようになっています。

炭水化物と脂肪、タンパク質から成る三大栄養素は重要ですが、体がそれらを有効活用できるようにする、ビタミンとミネラルも不可欠であるとわかり、三大栄養素ではなく五大栄養素ということばのほうが、よく聞かれるようになりました。

さらに、現代人の食生活に不足しがちな食物繊維も、非常に大事な役割を果たしていることが判明しています。

以前は、食物繊維の摂取量は十分であったため、体に吸収されない余分なもの、と考えられていましたが、摂取量が減ってくると、さまざまな不具合をきたすことが明らかとなりました。

今や食物繊維は、健康維持のために欠かせない栄養素と、見なされるようになっています。

1日必要摂取量は、18グラムから20グラムです。干ししいたけ100グラムには、45グラムもの食物繊維が含まれています。50グラムなら十分に食べられる量であり、干ししいたけは食物繊維の摂取に最適な食材と言えそうです。

干ししいたけの栄養価

干ししいたけには、他にも重要な栄養素が豊富に含まれています。代表的なのが、日本人に不足しがちなビタミンDです。ビタミンDは、骨の形成に欠かせない栄養成分です。

紫外線を浴びれば、皮膚からもつくられますが、成人したあとで日光を浴びる機会はあまりないことが多く、不足しがちになります。干ししいたけを食べることで、その不足分を補っていきたいものです。

天日干しした、干ししいたけには、生のしいたけの9倍ものビタミンDが含まれています。天日干しではなく、乾燥機で乾燥させて売られている場合もありますので、食べる前に日光に笠の裏の部分を当てるのが理想です。

天日干しして生成されたビタミンDは、時間が経つとなくなってしまいます。食べる前に10分程度は日光に当てましょう。生のしいたけを買ってきて、1時間ほど天日干しするだけでも、かなりのビタミンDが生成されます。

長く干して、自分で干ししいたけをつくってもいいでしょう。乾燥させると日持ちがしますから、保存しやすくなります。その場合も、食べる少し前に紫外線に当てることが大事です。

不溶性食物繊維が豊富

食物繊維には、不溶性のものと水溶性のものがあります。干ししいたけに含まれるのは、不溶性の食物繊維のほうです。不溶性であるため、腸で水分を吸収し、便のかさを増やします。

すると腸壁が押され、その刺激で腸の運動が活発になり、便が出やすくなります。便が出せない状態だと、便から悪い物質ができやすくなり、健康に害を及ぼしますから、便が溜まったら、すぐ排出するに越したことはありません。

それが健康維持に不可欠であるからこそ、食物繊維は第六の栄養素とされるようになったわけです。

食物繊維は、便通を促すだけでなく、コレステロールの吸収を抑制し、腸内の善玉菌を増やしてくれます。善玉菌が増えれば、免疫力もアップします。

また、食物繊維を適正量、継続して摂ることで、高血圧や糖尿病の予防にもなるようです。不溶性のものと水溶性のものは、2:1の割合で摂取するのが理想です。

水溶性の食物繊維が豊富なのは、海藻やこんにゃくで、いずれもしいたけと相性の良い食物ですから、料理で両方を使い、できれば毎日摂取しましょう。

うま味が多く、料理に最適

干ししいたけには、うま味成分のグアニル酸が豊富に含まれています。干ししいたけを戻す場合は、水につけて冷蔵庫の中に24時間置きましょう。

常温の水でなら、5時間ほどで戻りますし、お湯でなら1時間ほどで済むことですが、冷水のほうが常温の水の8倍ものグアニル酸が得られます。

多くの時間を要すものの、うま味成分を得るためです。グアニル酸には、血液をサラサラにする効果までありますので、できれば冷水で戻したいところです。

うま味には、グルタミン酸とイノシン酸、そしてグアニル酸の3種類があり、それぞれを合わせて用いると、数倍ものうま味になります。

うま味の、相乗効果と呼ばれるものです。グアニル酸を多く含むのは、干ししいたけだけです。グルタミン酸は海藻やトマトに、イノシン酸はカツオ節に多く含まれています。

干ししいたけと合わせやすい食材ですから、一緒に料理して、うま味を最大限引き出したいところです。

干ししいたけを50グラム摂れば、食物繊維の1日の摂取量は満たせます。50グラムを摂るのは、決して難しくはありません。

最後に

干ししいたけには、豊富な食物繊維が含まれています。

生で食べるよりも、天日干しして干ししいたけにして食べる方が、栄養価も高く、うま味も増えます。

干ししいたけは、第六の栄養素である食物繊維を、効率良く摂れる食材です。

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