知っておきたい通夜・葬式の参列マナー:各宗教の香典の表書き

人が亡くなった時のお別れの方法はさまざまであり、それは国によっても宗教によっても違ってきます。

一般的では、マナーを守って用意しておいたことであっても、その宗教では失礼にあたることもあるので、注意が必要になってきます。

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仏式の葬儀に参列するなら

日本国内では、仏式の葬儀で行うという人も多く、香典袋はスーパーやドラッグストア、コンビニエンスストアでも手軽に手に入れることができます。

白無地の袋に、白と黒の水引がかかったデザインになりますが、蓮の花のイラストが入ったものでも利用ができます。

表書きの上段の中心には、縦書きでご霊前と書かれたものを用意し、下段中心には自分で名前を縦に記入することになります。

しかし、仏式でも宗派があって、それぞれに考えが違うこともあります。

一般的には、葬儀となると御霊前が使用されているのですが、浄土真宗になると御霊前という言葉は存在しないので、表書きには御仏前と書かれた袋を用意します。

仏になるとともに、御霊前から御仏前に変わることになるのですが、一般的な仏式では四十九日の法要が終わると、仏になると考えられています。

そのために、四十九日前に香典を渡すときには、御霊前が使用されているのですが、浄土真宗の教えでは人が死ぬとすぐに仏になると考えられているため、葬儀でも御仏前を用意することになるのです。

仏式の葬儀に出席する際には、事前に宗派までチェックしておいて、香典袋であってもマナー違反を避けなければなりません。

神式の葬儀に参列するなら

神式の葬儀に参列する時に用意する香典袋は、無地に白と黒の水引、もしくは双銀の水引が入ったものを選びます。表書きとしては、上段に御神前や御玉串料、御榊料などの言葉が書かれたものを選ぶことになります。

すでに印刷されているものを探すとなると、仏式のようにコンビニエンスストアでも見つかるということは少なくなるので、あちこち探し回ることにもなってしまいますが、仏式と同じ白と黒の水引で表書きの文字が書かれていないものも販売されているので、上段に縦書きで自分で記入することもできます。

神式にも仏式のように宗派があるのですが、神式の場合には宗派によって、表書きの言葉が変わることがないので安心です。

また、神式になると、葬儀の後の法事も五十日祭りや式年祭など、仏式とは行う時期や名称も違ってきますが、これらの時の香典袋も、葬儀の時と同じ形式で用意すればいいので不安はありません。

神式では、仏式のように人が死んだら仏になるという概念はなく、死ぬというけがれを清めて死者を神としてまつるという考えで、葬儀が行われることになるので、香典袋を間違えるようなことは大きなマナー違反となるので避けなければなりません。

キリスト教式の葬儀に参列するなら

キリスト教式の葬儀では、十字架や百合の花がプリントされた香典袋が利用されることになります。表書きの右上に十字架が描かれており、下段の右下や中央下などに百合の花が切り花のような形で描かれています。

文具店など、豊富な品ぞろえの店舗に行けば見つけることができますが、困った時には何もプリントされていない白い封筒を用意します。

水引が描かれている必要はなく、上段にお花料と記入して下段に自分の名前を書くことになります。キリスト教式では、お香を備えるという風習はありません。

香典は、お線香の代わりとして供えるという意味からきていることになり、キリスト教ではお花を供えることから、お花料と記入することになります。

キリスト教の中にも宗派があり、カトリックであれば、日本のご霊前の記入は認められているので、持っているご霊前袋をそのまま利用することができます。

しかし、プロテスタントの場合には、認められていないためにマナー違反となってしまいます。間違いのないように、事前に宗派をチェックしておくことは、キリスト教式でも欠かせないこととなります。

亡くなった人の宗教が分からない時には

亡くなった人の宗教、宗派が分からないという場合には、香典袋も何にしたらいいのか困ってしまうことになります。聞ける人がいれば、必ず事前に宗派まで確認しておくことは欠かせません。

主に、仏式、神式、キリスト教式がありますが、これ以外の宗教に入っている人も多くいて、その宗教ならではのオリジナルの香典袋がある可能性もあります。

しかし、もしも誰も聞くことができないという場合には、最も無難とされている白無地の袋に白黒の水引が書かれており、表書きの上段には御霊前と書かれているものを用意しておきます。

下段に自分の名前を書くことになりますが、ボールペンやサインペンではなく筆ペンを使用します。

筆ペンには二つの種類があり、結婚祝いや披露宴でのご祝儀などお祝いごとの場合の香典袋であれば、黒の濃い色が出る筆を使用するのですが、お悔やみ用としては薄墨のペンを使用するのが正式なマナーとなります。

専用に販売されており、コンビニエンスストアでも用意されている店舗もあります。自分の名前が大きくなりすぎないように、上段の御霊前の文字の大きさに合わせるようにして記入をします。

最後に

葬儀にはたくさんのマナーがありますが、香典袋だけでもさまざまな種類があり、場合によっては遺族の人に失礼な振る舞いとなってしまうことがあります。

どんな宗教であるかのチェックにプラスして、宗派までの確認も重要です。

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