健康意識を伸ばそう!健康に関する資格:はり師・きゅう師

西洋医学の発達はめざましいですが、それに対して東洋医学の効能も注目されています。

そのため、最近では鍼(はり)や灸(きゅう)を受けられる施設も増えています。

東洋に古くから伝わっているのが鍼や灸で、はり師・きゅう師として働くためには国家資格が必要です。

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はり師・きゅう師の資格とは

はり・きゅうとまとめられることが多いですが、はり師ときゅう師は別々の資格なので、両方の資格を持っている人だけが鍼灸師と名乗ることができます。

どちらも国家資格なので、それぞれの受験を受ける必要があり、同時に受験する場合には共通科目は免除してもらうことが可能です。

ただし、誰でも国家試験を受けられるわけではなく、受験資格を得る必要があります。

受験資格は厚生労働省と文部科学省に定められた専門学校や大学を卒業することで、修業年限は3年以上必要です。

卒業して初めて試験を受けられる資格がもらえます。

一般的なルートは、高校を卒業して大学・短大・専門学校のはり師・きゅう師養成課程(3~4年)を経て、はり師国家試験・きゅう師国家試験をそれぞれ受験して診察所などで働く道です。

はりきゅうの治療院は個人開業が多いので、募集しているところは少なく、募集を探すのは難しいです。

ただし、あん摩マッサージ指圧師や柔道整復師などの関連資格を取得していると、健康分野の仕事で就職の幅を広げることができます。

どんな仕事を行うのか

はり師ときゅう師はそれぞれ別の資格ですが、両方の試験を同時に受ける人が多いです。

鍼灸師という資格はないものの、同時に施術するケースが多いのでまとめて呼ばれています。

仕事内容は、身体に鍼や灸を使って刺激を与えて、様々な疾病の治療や健康増進を促す医療技術の鍼灸を行うことです。

これは医者以外にははり師・きゅう師しか行えません。

はり師の仕事は患者さんの症状に合わせ、ツボ(経穴)に金属の鍼を刺して刺激を与え、血流のバランスなどを整えて治療を行います。

きゅう師ははり師とツボを刺激するということは同じですが、鍼は使わずにもぐさを燃やすことでツボに温熱刺激を与えます。

活躍できる場所は様々で、個人開業して働く人もいますし、治療院に勤務して働く人もいます。

整形外科でリハビリをサポートしたり、内科や神経内科の疾患の緩和に鍼灸を取り入れている病院に勤務して働くこともあります。

最近ではプロスポーツチームなどの専属トレーナーとして働く人もいますが、競争率が高いので人数は少ないです。

資格取得のためには養成施設で学ぶこと

はり師・きゅう師の国家試験の受験資格を得るには、鍼灸大学か専門学校などの養成施設で3年以上鍼灸に関する専門課程を修了する必要があります。

鍼灸大学は4年制で専門学校は3年制で、養成学校でははり師の勉強もきゅう師の勉強もどちらもできるところがほとんどです。

キャリアを広げるためには片方だけの知識と技術では足りないので、多くの学生は両方の資格取得を目指して学びます。

養成施設で学ぶことができるのは、基礎はり学・きゅう学、臨床はり学・きゅう学などで、さらに人体構造と機能、疾病の成り立ち、疾病予防及び回復の促進など健康や疾病についての基礎です。

患者さんに触れながら治療する職業なので、患者さんとコミュニケーション能力を高めていくための授業もあるのが特徴です。

骨の模型を使って神経系・感覚系・筋系などの知識を学んだり、鍼灸の実習も用意されています。

学校ごとにカリキュラムが異なるので、自分にあった養成施設を選ぶことが大切です。

鍼灸大学は4年制なので専門学校よりも学費がかかりますが、時間的に余裕を持って学べる傾向があります。

これから活躍の場が広がる可能性も

現代医学では薬などを使って内側から疾病の治療を行いますが、鍼灸は外側から刺激を与えて全身のバランスを見ながら人間が持つ自然治癒力を高めていく方法という点が異なります。

西洋医学は風邪には抗生物質を使うといった対処療法が一般的ですが、東洋医学では体を根本から立て直すことに力を入れるのが特徴です。

原因や治療法がはっきりしていないアレルギーや慢性疾患などの症状にも役立つということで、日本だけではなく海外でも取り入られられることが増えていますし、スポーツ選手などが練習や試合後、リハビリ時期などに活用することも徐々に多くなっています。

さらに高齢化や生活習慣病によって健康への不安が高まっている現代社会では、健康な体作りを目指して鍼灸を受けたいと希望する人も増えてきて、鍼灸への需要が徐々に高まっています。

鍼灸は高齢者が受けるというイメージがありますが、最近では美容業界でもはり師やきゅう師として活躍する人が増えているのも特徴です。

はり師・きゅう師はこれから成長していく可能性が高いチャンスのある分野の仕事です。

最後に

はり師・きゅう師になるためにはそれぞれの国家試験を受けることが必要があります。
試験資格を得るための大学や専門学校への通学も必要ですが、東洋医学の技法を学べるのが魅力的です。
今後は様々な分野で需要が高まっていく可能性があるので、将来性があります。

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-仕事・資格, 国家資格

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