インジェクションのガレージキットの特徴は?メリット・デメリットについて


プラモデルの成形によく使われるインジェクションについて紹介します。

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インジェクションキットとは?

インジェクションキットは別名射出成形キットといい、金属の型に高圧をかけてプラスチックなどの合成樹脂を注いで成形する方法です。

通常、プラスチック製の枠から切り離して作るタイプの組み立て模型、プラモデルにおいて最も一般的な製造方法であり、軽くて丈夫な部品が特にミスなく生産できます。

また、インジェクションキットの中には型の耐久性を度外視し、軽合金を用いて高圧をかけた樹脂を成形する簡易インジェクションキットという方法もあります。

簡易的に製造した型を用いるため数回作ると型がダメになってしまいますが、加工しやすい材質の型を使用することになるので、複雑な形状のパーツを作成しやすく、電鋳した金型を利用できることから精密な再現が可能という特徴があります。

しかし、型の耐久性が簡易と付くだけあって不足しており、鋳造後の変形を招きやすいという点で本家インジェクションキットに後れを取ります。

もともとはアメリカなどで航空機のモデルを作成する際に使われていた方法です。

続いて旧ソ連や東欧圏のメーカーがこぞって製作に乗り出し、組み立て模型の成形方法として一般的になりました。

時には軽合金の一種であるホワイトメタルを用いた部品も混ぜるなど、本物に質感が近くなるような努力が重ねられます。

それが日本に入ってくると、日本国内では金型の成形が比較的安価に行えたことからその技術は根付き、戦闘機の組み立て模型を作成するために使用されていた技術は平成の世ではプラモデルを製造する技術として使用され、現在でも製造の主力として活躍しています。

インジェクションのメリット

インジェクションキットは強度の高い金型を使用する場合が多く、ガレージキットの製法ではメジャーなメタルキャストキットなどシリコン型を使う手法に比べ、型の使いまわしがきき複数のパーツを同一型から製造できます。

また、比較的安価に使用できる樹脂や塩化ビニールを高圧で成形することによって通常の成形以上に頑丈な部品を製造することができるのも射出成形ならではの強みです。

金型の整備をこまめに繰り返すことで40年以上も使い続けられる場合があり、製造コストはそこまで高くなりません。

また、高圧で樹脂を流し込むことによって細部まで樹脂を装填できるという特徴があるので、比較的細かく大掛かりな部品を成形してもキレイに高精度のものが出来る場合が多いです。

この特徴を利用することによって通常のプラモデルではおなじみの、一枚の複合パーツから部品を切り離すタイプのプラモデルが製造されます。

この部品を切り離したときにできる棘状の型の残り、一般にバミと呼ばれる余剰部分を小さくするために注ぎ口を小さくし、細い架橋によって結ばれた複合パーツを製造することもできます。

この方法でも美しい仕上がりは得られますが、材料をパーツに注入するために時間がかかり生産性がやや低下してしまうため、組み立て模型をどのような用途のために製作するかによって金型の形や細部の変化をつけていくのがいいかもしれません。

また、プラスチックで成形されるために、パーツが軽量で扱いやすいというメリットがあり、シンナーなどで表面を洗浄すれば美しい仕上がりを得ることが出来ます。

インジェクションキット製作の上で難しいこと

インジェクションキットは前述の通り、樹脂を高圧で流し込むことこそ最大の特徴でありますが、その射出成形のために要する設備は非常に大型であり、個人のレベルでは用意しづらいというのがインジェクションキット作成の最初期段階でぶつかる問題になります。

また、高圧で流し込む樹脂の熱や圧力に耐えうる金型を製作するのも個人レベルでは至難の業であり、組み立て模型、プラモデルを展開するような企業レベルの規模でもって初めて有用な製法として活用できると言えます。

個人でインジェクションキットを作成し、即売会などで販売している方をごく稀に見かけますが非常に精巧な作りは疑うべくもないのにやはり他のガレージキットに比べやや値が張ってしまうのはこういった設備にかかるコストを反映しているから、と言わざるを得ません。

また、精緻なパーツは出来るものの表面処理が粗くなってしまう場合があります。

簡易インジェクションキットに特に見られることなのですが、型から取り外した後表面の仕上げをかけなければ上手く塗装できない、というひと手間をかける必要がありこれを面倒に思う方にはお勧めできません。

また、上手に成形したと思っても、時間がたつとパーツが少し反ってきてしまう場合があります。この反りは薄造りのパーツほど顕著になり、それ故に思うようなパーツ作りは難しくなります。

以上のことから、設備コストを要し、その上で技術まで要求される、ガレージキットとして作成するには非常に上級者向けの手法となります。

しかし、ひとたび技術を確立してしまえば仕上がりも美しいのでマニアを中心に未だ根強い人気があります。

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