JリーグのJ1とJ2の入れ替えの仕組みはどうなっている?

2017年のJリーグが開幕して、各チームがそれぞれの目標に向かって、毎試合熱い戦いを繰り広げています。

リーグ戦も終盤になると、優勝争いが白熱すると同時に、J1の下位チームの降格争いも激しい争いを毎年繰り広げています。

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J1チームは下位3チームが自動降格する

J1とJ2との入れ替えは、その年によってルールが変わってきていますが、現在ではJ1に所属する全18チームのうち、年間総合順位が下位3チームの16位から18位が、基本的に自動降格する仕組みとなっています。

J2との入れ替え戦は行われませんので、リーグ戦1年間の順位で降格か残留かが決定します。以前はファーストステージ、セカンドステージと別れていましたが、2017年からは1年間通したリーグ戦となりました。

年間順位の決め方は、リーグ戦が終了した時点での、年間勝ち点が多い順に順位を決定していきます。仮に年間勝ち点が同じチームがあった場合は、得失点差、総得点数、当該チーム間の対戦成績、販促ポイント、抽選といった順番で、優位な方が上の順位になります。

一般的にほとんどが勝ち点が同じ場合は得失点差で決まり、それ以降まで同じことはほぼありません。J1からJ2に降格するチームは3チームが原則ですが、例外としてJ2からJ1に昇格するチームが、J1のライセンスを付与されていない場合があれば、繰上とならず昇格チームは2チームのみとなります。

そうすると、J1で16位のチームは降格とならずJ1に残留となります。ただしこのパターンはかなり例外なので、実現の可能性はほとんどありません。

よって、J1からは年間順位の下位3チームがJ2に降格すると考えて間違いありません。

J2チームは上位2チームが自動昇格、3位から6位はプレーオフで決定

J2リーグの昇格チームの決定については、J1と異なります。J1は、年間順位下位3チームが自動降格するのに対して、J2はプレーオフ制度を導入しており、より多くのチームにJ1昇格の可能性があります。

まずJ1に昇格する自動昇格については、年間勝ち点の多い上位1位と2位の2チームとなります。順位の決め方には、J1同様に年間勝ち点の多い順、勝ち点が同じ場合は得失点差や総得点数などで決まります。

そして、J2の最大の特徴でもあるプレーオフ制度ですが、これはJ2のリーグ戦が全て終了した後に、年間総合順位が3位から6位の4チームが、トーナメント形式で試合を行います。

このトーナメントの優勝チーム1チームが、J1に昇格します。プレーオフは、年間順位の3位と6位、4位と5位が順位が、上のチームのホームスタジアムで90分間試合を行います。90分で決着がつかない場合は、延長戦は行われずに順位が上のチームが勝利となり、決勝に進みます。

これは、年間勝ち点が上のチームが有利となるような仕組みとなっています。決勝戦も、勝ち上がった2チームが戦います。こちらも90分間で決着がつかなければ、順位が上のチームが優勝となりJ1に昇格します。

ただしJ2の全チームがJ1に昇格できるわけではなく、Jリーグ規定でJ1に昇格するには、スタジアムや観客動員数など一定の条件を満たして、ライセンスの取得が必要となります。

ライセンスのないチームは、仮にJ2で優勝してもJ1に昇格はできません。そうした場合、順位の繰上は行われず、残ったチームが昇格やプレーオフを戦うという仕組みになっています。

過去のJリーグは入れ替え戦もあった

2017年現在のJリーグでは、J1は3チームが自動降格して、J2は2チームが自動昇格、残り1チームがプレーオフで決まるという仕組みになっています。このため、J1とJ2のチームが直接対決することはありません。

しかし過去には、2004年から2008年までは、J1の16位とJ2の3位が直接対決して、その勝者が翌年のJ1で戦うという入れ替え戦を実施していました。

試合は、ホームアンドアウエー方式で2戦行われ、2戦で勝ちの多いチームが勝利となります。勝ち数が同じ場合は、得失点差やアウェーゴール方式、それでも決まらない場合は、延長戦やPK戦で決めていました。

Jリーグの活性化やチーム数の増加により、2008年以降J2のチーム数が18チームになったことに伴い、入れ替え戦は廃止され、J1とJ2は自動昇格、自動降格となりました。

しかし昇格、降格をかけた争いということで、両チームとも非常に盛り上がる試合となっており、入れ替え戦を復活してほしいと声を上げるサポーターも少なくありません。

一方J2のプレーオフに関しては、現在も行われていますが批判的な声もあります。J2で6位のチームがJ1に昇格できるためチャンスは広がっているのですが、J1とのレベル差が開いており、昇格した翌年のJ1で勝ち点を積み上げることが出来ず、断トツで最下位という事態が発生しているためです。

J1とJ2の昇格と降格をどのようにしていくか、単純なスタジアムの集客だけでなく、Jリーグをどのようにレベルアップさせて、永続的に発展させていくかという視点で、委員会だけでなくサポーターも一緒に考えていくことが重要となります。

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