海で仕事をしたい人にピッタリの船舶関係の資格:水先人

外航船や内航船など船舶が安全に航行するためには、水先人の有資格者の存在が重要です。

水先人は特定の海域に関する海底の地形や潮の流れなど、様々な環境に精通した専門家として船に乗り込み、船長に助言を行います。

日本には35の水先区が設定され、それぞれの水域で専門家が活躍しています。

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水先人の資格を取得するには

日本には35の水先区が存在しており、それぞれの水域に異なる特徴があります。
船舶が安全に航行するためには、各水域が有する環境の違いを熟知した専門家の存在が必要です。

水先人の免許は国土交通大臣が所管しており、各水先区ごとに免許を受けることが求められます。
ある水域について免許を受けていても、他の水域で免許を受けていなければ活動することはできません。

船舶が安全に航行するために考慮しなければならない条件は様々です。
風や波、潮流、水深などの自然環境の他に水域ごとで課されるルールが存在します。

各水先区の専門家になるためには、自然環境やルールなど様々な知識に習熟する必要があります。
また免許には3つのクラスが存在し、それぞれ業務が可能な船舶の大きさが違います。

かつて免許を受けるためには総トン数3000トン以上の船舶で3年以上船長を務めた経験が求められました。
現在では3級水先人であれば、3級海技士(航海)以上の有資格者で1年以上練習船で実習を行えば免許を取得することが可能となりました。

以前は50代以上の実務経験者のみが取得できる資格でしたが、現在では20代でも取得できます。

水先人のクラスについて

水先人には3級から1級までのクラスが存在します。

2級や3級の有資格者は一定の条件を満たすことで上位のクラスにステップアップできます。

全てのクラスで共通しているのは、3級海技士(航海)以上の資格が求められる点です。

また2級と1級を取得するには実務経験が必要になります。
3級の場合には1年以上練習船での実習を行えば実務経験は不要です。

それぞれのクラスで業務を行うことができる船舶の大きさに違いがあります。

3級の場合には総トン数が2万トンまでの船舶で業務を行うことができます。
しかし危険物積載船では業務を行うことができません。
危険物積載船とは石油や液化石油ガスなどの危険性が高い貨物を積載する船舶のことです。

2級にステップアップすると5万トンまでの船舶で業務を行うことができるようになります。
また危険物積載船における業務も総トン数が2万トンまでであれば可能です。

1級になるとあらゆる船舶で業務を行うことができます。

各クラスで免許受けるためにはそれぞれ異なる条件を満たす必要があります。
一定の要件を満たせばステップアップも可能です。

上位のクラスにステップアップするには

各クラスの免許を取得するためには3級海技士(航海)以上の資格を取得した上で、それぞれのクラスの条件を満たすことが求められます。

3級免許を取得するためには、原則として平水区域を除く総トン数1000トン以上の船舶で1年以上船長または航海士として乗船した経験が必要です。
3級の場合には1年以上練習船で実習を受けた経験があれば取得することができます。

2級免許の場合には平水区域を除く総トン数3000トン以上の船舶で、船長または一等航海士として2年以上乗船した経験が必要です。

1級の場合には3000トン以上の船舶で2年以上船長として乗船した経験が求められます。

それぞれのクラスで実務経験などの条件を満たした場合には、登録養成機関で養成課程を修了する必要があります。

養成課程にはクラスによって期間に違いがあります。
3級は2年6か月、2級は1年6か月、1級は9か月とされます。

その後試験に合格すれば免許を取得できます。

3級合格者や2級合格者は一定の実務経験を経てステップアップのための養成課程を経ることで上位クラスの試験を受験できます。

船舶が安全に航行するために

様々な水域で船舶が安全に航行するために、水先人の有資格者は不可欠な存在です。

日本国内には35の水先区がありますが、専門家として活動するためには一定の実務経験などの他にそれらの水域に関する深い理解が求められます。

資格には3つのクラスがあり、条件を満たすことでステップアップが可能です。

それぞれのクラスで試験を受験するためには養成課程を経る必要がありますが、一定の条件を満たし上位クラスの試験を受験する際にも別に養成課程を経ることが求められます。

ステップアップのための養成課程の期間は、最初から上位クラスを受験する場合と比較して短くなります。

3級の有資格者が2級試験を受験する場合には、登録養成施設における6か月の養成課程を修了することが必要です。

同様に2級の有資格者が1級試験を受験する場合には、3か月の養成課程を修了することが求められます。

国家試験では身体検査と学科試験が行われます。
学科試験には筆記試験と口述試験があります。

養成課程では座学の他にも操船シミュレータによる訓練や水先現場訓練を行います。

資格を取得するためには、船舶が安全に航行するために必要なあらゆる知識と技能を習得する必要があります。

最後に

日本には35の水先区が存在しており、それぞれの水域で専門家である水先人が活躍しています。
水先人は特定の水域に関する自然環境やルールに習熟し、船舶が安全に航行するため船長に助言を行う重要な仕事です。
現在では実務経験がない場合でも、1年間練習船で実習を受ければ免許を取得できます。

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-仕事・資格, 国家資格
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