いまさら聞けない年金入門|厚生年金保険料の計算方法

将来、退職後の安定した生活のために、サラリーマンは厚生年金に加入しています。退職後は、納めた額に従って、死ぬまで年金が支給されます。

ところで、毎月の給料から厚生年金保険料が天引きされていますが、これはどのような計算方法で算出されるのでしょうか。

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保険料の計算方法の基本

毎月の厚生年金保険料は、給料が多い人ほど多くなり、将来支給される年金額も多くなるわけですが、その保険料率は2017年8月現在では、18.182%になっています。

これは、政府が2004年に行った年金改革によって決定されたもので、2004年から毎年0.354%ずつ保険料率が引き上げられ、最終的には2017年10月に18.3%にまで引き上げられることになっています。

ちなみに、改革前の保険料率は13.58%でした。2017年10月に18.3%まで保険料率が引き上げられると、これ以降はこの水準のまま推移することになっています。

毎年引き上げられていく、厚生年金保険料の負担を重く感じていた多くのサラリーマンにとって、取りあえずこれ以上厚生年金保険料が上がらないので、ほっと胸をなでおろすことになります。

ところで、実際納めている厚生年金保険料の金額を知りたいという場合には、毎月の給料明細書を見ればすぐにわかります。給料明細書の控除の項目に中に、厚生年金と書かれた項目があります。

そこに記載されている金額が、実際に納めている厚生年金保険料ということになります。

保険料の負担は会社と折半

給料明細書に記載さている厚生年金保険料を見ると、かなりの額が引かれていると感じる方も少なくないことでしょう。給料の約9%近くも、天引きされている計算です。

しかし、保険料率は18.182%のはずなのに、約9%程度だけしか給料から引かれていないのは、なぜだろうと思う人もいるかもしれません。計算方法が、間違っているのでしょうか。

実は、厚生年金保険料は、会社と本人と折半で支払うことになっているのです。つまり、会社が9.091%を負担し、自分も残りの9.091%を負担しているわけです。

これは自営業にはない、サラリーマンとして働く大きな特権の一つと言って良いでしょう。つまり、退職後の生活費の半分は、これまで働いてきた会社が負担してくれるわけです。

従って、厚生年金保険料がアップするというのは、加入者本人だけでなく、会社にとっても大変大きな負担となっており、経営を圧迫している場合も少なくありません。

2017年10月からは、さらに保険料がアップします。厚生年金保険料の引き上げは、これが最後だと思っても大きな負担です。

厚生年金に加入する人とは

厚生年金は、会社(法人)に勤めている70歳未満の民間サラリーマンは、基本的に全員が加入しなければなりません。

加入したくない、自分の将来は自分でなんとかすると主張したい人もいるかもしれませんが、加入しなければならないと法律で定められているので、それを拒否することはできません。

これは自分の将来のことだけでなく、今生きている高齢者の生活を支える義務があるということです。サラリーマンはこの厚生年金だけではなく、その下に基礎年金として国民年金を支払っている形になっています。

つまり、二つの年金に加入しているということです。これに対して、自営業、農業、従業員5人未満の個人事業に勤めている人には、厚生年金への加入はなく、国民年金に加入することになります。

そのため、将来受け取ることができる年金の額は、非常に少なくなります。また、さらに安定した年金を受け取りたい人や、自営業者の人などは、民間の個人年金に加入するという方法もあります。

商品を選ぶときは、「返戻率(戻り率)」の高い商品を選ぶと、有利です。

専業主婦はどうなるの?

ところで、専業主婦の場合はどうなるのでしょうか。働いていないのだから、全く厚生年金保険料を納めていません。そうなると、老後の生活はどうなるのだろうと心配している人もあるかもしれません。

結論から言うと、それほど心配する必要はありません。

というのは、サラリーマンの配偶者のうち、20歳以上60歳未満の人で、年収が106万円未満の人は、所定の手続きを行うことにより、保険料を支払わなくても、自動的に第3号被保険者という形で、国民年金の加入者となることができるからです。

これは非常に大きな特権であり、高齢になったとき、保険料を支払っていないにも関わらず、お金を受け取ることができるのです。

しかし、この第3号被保険者の保険料は、だれが負担しているのでしょうか?誰かが負担しているわけですが、これは厚生年金に加入している人たちが、その分を上乗せして支払っているのです。

その際に、不公平感があるのは、独身者も共働きの夫婦も、専業主婦の分を負担させられ、少し高めの厚生年金保険料を支払わなければならないということです。

最後に

老後の安心、安定した生活を確保するために、サラリーマンは厚生年金保険料を支払っていますが、その内の半分は会社が負担しています。

現在の保険料率は18・182%となっており、2017年10月には18.3%となります。

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