いまさら聞けない年金入門|国民年金保険料の免除・猶予について

国民年金に加入はしているけれど、保険料の納付が出来づらいことも、収入次第ではあり得ます。

そんな時に知っておきたいのが、国民年金保険料の免除と猶予の制度です。

納付が出来ないままでも、これらを知っておけば、将来の年金受給資格期間の算定で有利になるので、どうしても困難な場合には、制度を活用するようにしましょう。

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国民年金保険料は免除するには申請が必要

国民年金を受給するために、第一号被保険者は毎月、保険料を納付しなければなりません。しかし、収入が一定しないことや失業などの理由で、それが出来ない場合もあり得ます。

そんな時に、知っておきたいのが免除制度です。収入が減少して、国民年金保険料を納めることが経済的に無理な場合には、本人からの申請により、承認が出来る場合に限り、免除が出来ます。

実際の所得がどれくらいあるのかは、前年度の収入によって見極めることになりますが、本人、世帯主、配偶者の前年所得により、承認されるようになります。

保険料は全額、4分の3、半額、4分の1の免除があるのですが、この区別も所得額によって異なって来ます。

納付できないから、そのまま放置して未納にしておくと言う方もいますが、このまま未納にしておくよりも、申請をすることにより将来の年金の算定で役立つメリットもあるので、申請をする方が賢明です。

収入が減少したり、失業したりして困難な状態にあるのに、保険料の納付が大変で、生活費を何とかして切り詰めていると言う方もいるでしょう。

まずは、年金事務所や市役所へ相談をしてみれば、この制度についての説明も受けられます。

国民年金保険料には猶予制度もある

一方、保険料には猶予制度もあるのをご存知ですか。この場合に該当する方は、20歳から50歳未満と言う条件があり、本人や配偶者の前年所得が、基準以下になっている場合に、申請が出来ます。

申請をしてから承認が済めば、保険料納付の猶予が出来るようになります。この制度を知り、申請をして承認が出来れば、条件を満たす場合のみにですが、未納のままでいるよりも、メリットがあります。

老齢年金、障害年金、遺族年金の算定期間に加えられるようになるからです。

実際に納付はしていなくても、申請をしないままで未納の場合には、全く算定されないままで過ごすことになるので、それぞれの年金受給をする時になって不利になっているわけです。

知らないままで未納にしておくよりも、こちらの制度を知っておくことで、少なくとも、年金受給の算定期間に加えられるので、先々に有利になります。

こちらも、年金事務所や市役所への問い合わせに応じてくれるので、活用してみましょう。そのまま未納にしておくことの方が、不利になるのは理解いただけたでしょうか。

免除の申請で年金額に影響が出る

国民年金保険料は全額、4分の3、半額、4分の1の免除が、所得に応じて認められるようになりますが、これによって受給期間の算定に加算されるのは、先ほど述べましたが、算定額にも影響が出るのをご存知ですか。

それぞれの割合に応じて、将来、受給した場合にそれぞれのケースで、何%の割合が決められているので、未納のままにしておくのとでは、大きな違いが出て来ます。

たとえば、平成21年4月分からの保険料の全額が免除となった場合の期間では、国民年金保険料を通常通り全額納付した方の額の、2分の1が支給されるようになっているからです。

収入の減少などの理由で困難な場合でも、申請をしておけば、後々金額に反映されることを意外と知らない方も多く、目の前の出費だけを抑制しようとするケースも多いのですが、このような影響が出ることを知っておけば、先々のために、収入が減少したり失業で無職になったりした時には、活用をしておくのが賢明だと言えます。

受給算定期間のみならず、金額にまで影響が出ることを把握しておくようにすれば、制度を理解しやすくなるのではないでしょうか。

申請先は、年金事務所かお住いの自治体へ

いずれの場合も、申請先は、住民票のある市役所、町村役場の年金課になります。その前に、詳しい内容を理解しておきたいこともあるでしょう。

将来の受給算定期間や、金額に影響が出るため、より専門的な相談をする必要もありますので、年金事務所に問い合わせをしましょう。

また、実際に電話ではなく出向いて相談も可能ですが、最寄りに事務所が無い場合には、定期的に開催される相談を利用するのも便利です。

申請書は、窓口へ提出する他には、郵送でも可能になっています。申請には、様々な書類が必要になりますが、その中でも前年度の所得証明が必要になるため、申請時に自治体で申し込むようにすれば、二度手間がかかりません。

所得証明についても、自治体へ郵送で請求することも可能ですが、必要な年度、必要となった目的、手数料を小為替で送るところが多くなっています。

急いで申請をしたい場合には、出来るだけ直接窓口まで足を運ぶのが賢明だと言えるでしょう。

必要な書類についても、事前に年金事務所で確認をしておくことも出来ますので、相談をしておきましょう。

最後に

いかがでしょうか。国民年金保険料の納付が困難な場合には、このように免除や猶予の制度を活用すれば、受給算定期間や金額への算定にも関わって来ます。

年金受給に影響が出て来るわけですから、未納のままにしておくとあらゆるケースで不利になることを知っておきましょう。

いずれの場合も、自らが申請をしないと承認されない制度ですので、把握をしておいてください。

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