いまさら聞けない年金入門|年金の確定申告

年金をもらっている人は、確定申告を行うと税金が戻ってきたり、市民税等の減免が行われる可能性があります。

一般的に、会社勤めをしていた人は確定申告等に縁のない人が多いのですが、これを行うことで、様々なメリットがあるので、覚えておいた方が良いものです。

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年金における確定申告の必要性

会社から給料もらっている際には、会社の税金を天引きして支払うことになっています。

また年末調整においても、会社側の方書類を取りまとめて税務署に提出し、1年分の税金の総額を調整して、年末に払い過ぎた分については返還されることになっているので、多くの人は確定申告を行ったことがない場合はです。

しかし、年金の場合には毎月の支払い額から、所得税に相当する分については天引きされるものの、年末調整の制度は無いので申告を行わない場合、税金を支払いすぎている可能性の高い人が多いのです。

確定申告においては、その年に合った収入の全てを、しっかりと計算して届け出ることで、本来支払うべき年間の税金を再計算し、すでに支払った分との差額を精算する形になります。

また併せて、年金以外の所得や、医療費や住宅ローン等、様々な控除に該当する出費などを届け出ることで、所得税の精算のほか、所得税の額によって決められる市民税等の見直しが行われることになり、これらの税金が減免される可能性が高くなります。

そのため、積極的に行う方が良いものでもあるのです。

確定申告の必要性とメリット

確定申告は、年金による所得が年間400万円以上、もしくはその他の所得が年間20万円以上の場合には、必ず行わなければならないことが定められていますが、収入がそれ以外にない場合には、基本的には行う必要がないと言われています。

これは、基本的にこの金額の範囲内であれば、確定申告を行っても税金の減免は基本的にほとんどないためです。

実際には、税務署の事務作業を軽減するために、小額の確定申告はしなくても、スムーズに処理ができるようになっているのも大きな理由です。

しかし、実際には年金だけで生活していると言う人が少なく、パートやアルバイトなどで多額の収入を得ていたり、逆に医療費やその他の出費で生活が苦しいと言う人も、少なくありません。

そのような際には、出費も含めて申請することで、その理由によっては税金の減免が行われており、様々な措置が取られることがあるので、基本的には行っておく方が有利です。

年金は所得税と異なり、雑所得という扱いとなるため、その税率は一般の給与の場合に比べて大きくなっていることが多いものです。

そのため、確定申告を行うことで、払い過ぎた税金が返ってくる可能性も非常に高いのです。

確定申告の方法は比較的簡単にできるものです

確定申告は、非常に面倒な書類を、たくさん書かなければいけないと考えている人が少なくありませんが、最近ではインターネットが普及し、単にその申告ができるようになっているので、ぜひ効果的に利用したいものです。

確定申告の基本的な方法は、収入を証明する証明書と、これに対する出費を証明する領収書等を、しっかりと保管しておくことが重要です。

また、生命保険や医療費については、その金額に応じて控除対象となるので、これらの領収書で証明書類などを添付して申請することで、その出費に応じた税金の減免を、受けることができるようになります。

まだ確定申告の時期になると、税務署では様々な特設の窓口を設け申請を受け付けているほか、書き方がわからないと言う人に対しては、担当者が丁寧にその書き方を指導してくれるので、安心して申請を行うことができます。

さらに最近では、税務署に書類を持っていかなくても、インターネットを利用して簡単に届け出ができるようになっているので、混雑で待たされる心配もありません。

その申請の方法は、税務署や地方自治体のホームページ等に詳細に掲載されているので、これを参考にすることで、誰でも基本的には簡単に申請ができるのが大きなメリットになっています。

確定申告を行わなければいけない場合

確定申告は、年金をもらっている人の年末調整に関わる重要な届出ですが、このほかにも重要な意味を持つものがあります。

1つが、高額に年金を受け取っている人の税金の見直しと、その出費における正当性のチェックです。

一般的に、年金は現代の日本の経済事情からすると、非常にその金額が少ないことが多く、確定申告を行わなくても良いボーダーラインである400万円以上と言う金額を、満たしていると言う人は少ないものです。

しかし中には、400万円以上の金額を受け取っていると言う人もおり、このような人の場合には、その税額が足りていないと言うことも少なくありません。

そのため、このような人については確定申告をしっかりと行わせることで、税金の金額を再計算することになり、場合によってはさらに税金を徴収されることにもなりかねないのか実態です。

これらの税金の申告においては、所得金額は基本的には自己申告となるため、しっかりとその内容を自分で精査し、届け出を行うことが重要です。

万が一誤っていると、追徴課税などの色の出費が発生される危険性があるので、注意をして行うことが大切です。

最後に

年金における申告は、一般の人は行わなくてもあまり所得額に変化はないものですが、現代社会においては、生命保険やその他の生活をする上で、必要とみられる出費が非常に多いのも事実です。

そのため、これらの費用を正確に算出し届け出と言う意味では、確定申告は非常に重要な意味合いを持っているものといえます。

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