いまさら聞けない年金入門|厚生年金の仕組み

知っているようで、意外とわからないのが厚生年金です。

常識的な知識として知っていて当然と思われながら、詳しく聞かれると困ってしまうということがないようにするには、知識を整理しておく必要があります。

その仕組みを、詳しく見ていきます。

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厚生年金の目的はなにか

厚生年金は、国民年金とは別の、もう一つの年金という位置づけです。基礎年金たる国民年金にさらに上乗せして、支給されるという性質を持ちます。

基本的には、両方同時に加入することになります。 労働者やその遺族の生活の安定、福祉の向上に寄与することを目的としており、老齢や障害、死亡について保険給付が行われるというものです。

働いている人が、年齢を重ねて定年退職をした場合、その後の生活を保障するために保険給付があれば、安心して暮らすことができます。

例えば家族を持つ人の場合、子どもが成人する前、教育にお金がかかる時に、怪我や病気で障害を負ってしまい働けなくなった場合や、亡くなってしまったときに残された家族が困らないように、この制度はあります。

厚生年金保険法等に基づき、日本政府が運営し、厚生労働大臣が責任者となっていますが、実際の運営事務のほとんどは日本年金機構に委任、委託されているのが実情です。

健康保険とは違い、通勤途中や業務上の災害によるものをも給付対象としています。労働者災害補償保険による給付との間には、調整があります。

どんな人が加入するのか

具体的には、どのような人が加入するでしょう。全ての法人事務所と、個人事務所のうち、従業員数が5人以上のところで加入義務があり、70歳未満の人は全員加入します。

逆に、自営業を営む人は、厚生年金に加入することはできません。パートタイマーやアルバイトに従事する人は、労働時間と労働日数が正社員並みだと判断される場合に、原則として厚生年金に加入します。

正社員並みとは、労働時間や日数が、正社員の4分の3以上の場合を言います。アルバイトでも、正社員並みに働く人には、厚生年金に加入させる義務が雇う側にはありますが、実際は必ずしもそうはなっていないのが現実でした。

これは、義務はあるけど罰則がないという問題が関わっています。法的には6ヶ月以下の罰金または、50万円以下の罰金と言う罰則が存在します。

しかし、今までは罰せられたことがほぼなく、形骸化した罰則であったため、加入逃れが事実上黙認されていたという悪しき慣習がありました。

この現状を打破すべく、厚生労働省と日本年金機構は強制指導を行い、きちんと加入させるように対策をうっています。

公務員は、以前共済年金に入るという仕組みになっていましたが、平成27年10月から厚生年金に一元化されました。

費用負担はどんな仕組みをとっているか

保険である以上、保険料がかかります。平成16年の年金改革を経て、それまで13.58パーセントだった保険料率が、毎年0.354パーセントずつ引き上げられ、平成29年以降は18.3パーセントにすることが決まりました。

公務員に関しても、将来的には18.3パーセントに合わせられる予定です。保険料は、被保険者と事業主が折半して払うという仕組みです。

事業者は、被保険者のものも含めて納付義務があり、通常は給料から自動的に天引きされます。被保険者が会社を休業し、給料が支払われていない場合でも、会社に籍がある以上厚生年金に加入していることになります。

そのため保険料は徴収され、会社も被保険者も支払わなければならないのがルールです。給料から天引きすることができない会社は、その分を建て替えるか、別途徴収されることになります。

産前、産後の休暇や、子どもが三歳に達するまでの育児休業の場合は、会社、被保険者双方の負担分が免除されます。この間の、保険料は支払わなくても良いことになっており、もちろん育休は男性も取得可能です。

加入から終了の流れについて

厚生年金への加入は、企業に所属すれば企業側で手続きを行ってくれます。厚生年金には、自動的に加入するような仕組みを持っています。このまま会社に在籍を続ければ、70歳になるまではずっと入っている仕組みです。

例えば転職をした場合でも、新たな会社で再び厚生年金に入ることになるので、退職するまで加入し続けることになっています。

70歳になる前に、定年を迎えた場合はどうでしょう。65歳で、会社を定年退職したとします。この場合は、退職した時点で保険料の支払い義務はなくなります。

受給は基本65歳からなので、このケースでは支払いと受給のバランスがうまく取れていることになりますが、例えば67歳でまだ働いている人は、 70歳未満なので保険料を支払う一方、65歳以上という条件を満たすことになり、受給もできるという状態です。

保険料を納めながら、年金を受け取る場合、現役で働ける間は頑張ってもらおうという考えの基、支給が停止されることもあります。

ちなみに、保険料の納付は育児休暇などで免除される事はあっても、少年院や刑事施設等に収容されている場合は免除されません。

最後に

厚生年金は、国民年金の2階部分などと言われ、将来仕事をリタイヤした後の生活を経済的に支えてくれる制度です。事業主に雇われているサラリーマンや公務員は、自動的に加入する仕組みです。

保険料をどれだけ払い、将来的にどのくらい受け取れるかというのをシミュレーションしておくと、将来設計に役立ちます。

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