いまさら聞けない年金入門|共済年金の仕組み

共済年金の仕組みを、しっかりと理解している人は意外と少ないものです。共済年金は、いわば公務員の厚生年金のことを示しますので、一般の会社員にとってはそもそも馴染みのない言葉です。

共済年金と厚生年金が一元化されたことに伴い、その仕組みについても変更される部分がありますので、確認しておくことが重要です。

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共済年金は上乗せ部分

共済年金は、国民年金を受け取ることができる人が、さらに上乗せをして受け取れる部分を示します。いわゆる「2階建ての2階」の部分ということとなります。

共済年金に関しては、公務員が給与から天引きされた部分が財源となっており、その天引きの割合については、各公務員共済の取り決めによって定められています。

一般的には、国家公務員に準じて設定されますので、大きな違いはありません。

共済年金に関しては、公務員の給与明細を確認すると「共済長期」という欄がありますので、その部分に記載されている金額が天引き分ということになります。

給与の金額に応じて、天引きされる金額が異なります。給与が高い人ほど、支払う金額も多くなりますので、将来的に給付される共済年金も、その分上乗せされるという仕組みでした。

制度が一元化がされましたので、共済組合による共済年金の支給という観点では、事業が終了したこととなりますが、共済組合員(公務員)に関する共済年金について、効率的な事務処理を実施するために、記録の管理や保険料の徴収など、事務的な作業に関してはそのまま継続となります。

上乗せされる金額は払込期間と平均報酬で決定

国民年金は、現在の制度上においては、65歳以上の国民が受け取れるようになります。自営業の方であれば、その国民年金のみが収入源となり、1ヶ月あたりの給付額である約65,000円で生活をするということになります。

もちろんこの金額だけでは、十分な収入とはなりませんので、現役時代になるべく多くの資産を蓄えておくことが重要です。

ただし、公務員や会社員に関しては、共済年金や厚生年金の制度があり、現役世代に払った金額に応じた給付が、受けられることとなります。平均報酬額が高いと、支給額も高くなるという仕組みとなっています。

標準報酬月額については、平成28年9月までは30段階となっており、平成28年10月からはさらに1段階下が追加されたために、31段階となっています。

報酬には、通勤交通費や扶養手当、残業手当なども含まれるために、同じ年齢でも勤務地や家族構成などによって、変動があると考えて良いでしょう。

将来的な年金受取額を計算するには、共済年金(平成28年10月からは厚生年金)に加入している期間の報酬を考慮し、加入期間全ての標準報酬月額の平均を算定し、平均標準報酬月額が利用されます。

どのくらいの金額が上乗せされて支給されるのか

これまでに支払った金額が、そのまま将来的に、共済年金として支給されるという勘違いをしている方も多いですが、自分が支払ったいわゆる「共済長期」の年金に関しては、現在受給している方たちへの財源として利用されています。

この共済年金の制度は、公務員と一般会社員の厚生年金との2つの柱があり、複雑化していたために、平成28年10月から一本化が実施されました。

以降は、共済年金を厚生年金としてお考えください。

さて、厚生年金に関しては、支払期間を通じて算出された、平均報酬が高ければ高いほど、受け取る年金が増えることになります。このことから、厚生年金は「報酬比例年金」と言われる場合があります。

現役時代に、給料が高ければ収める金額も多く、将来的に受け取ることのできる年金額も、増加するという基本的にシンプルな仕組みです。

現時点での制度においては、最も高い平均報酬月額で31等級62万0000円となっています。この金額に関しては、ボーナスを4ヶ月分として年収に換算するとおよそ1,000万円となります。

この等級に達している人が受け取れる額は、国民年金のみの場合と比較すると、かなり高額となりますが、理論的には達成が難しいと考えるのが一般的です。

平均するとおよそ2倍から3倍

31等級の平均報酬月額に達することは、かなりの高額の給与を長期間得ている人となりますので、一般的な公務員がおよそ38年間支払い続けた場合の等級で計算することによって、将来的な年金額がわかります。

かつて、共済年金を支払っていた多くの公務員は、採用時から退職時まで徐々に給与が上昇していきます。

一般的な事務職であれば、20代はおよそ総支給額が30万円未満と低いですが、退職に近い50代であれば40万円から50万円に近い金額となります。そのために平均して計算すると、およそ24等級(410,000円)前後と考えられます。

理論値でもあり、受給額においては将来的な変動は必ず発生しますので、あくまで概算ですが、20歳から60歳まで40年加入したとして、1等級の場合には約104万円、ずっと31等級であった場合は、約240万円となります。

国民年金の、2倍から3倍程度の受給額が得られることとなります。それでも、年収に換算すると高い場合でも、およそ300万円プラスアルファ程度となり、現役時代よりも収入は減少しますので、生活の見直しは必須といえます。

最後に

共済年金が一元化されましたが、基本的な仕組みについては継続しています。払い込んだ金額の多さが、必ずしも受給額にそのまま反映されるわけではないのですが、それでも「1階建ての1階のみ」の受給者よりも、かなりの受給額が得られることは、間違いありません。

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