いまさら聞けない年金入門|厚生年金の加入年齢と受給年齢

厚生年金は、正社員として働いていると給料から、自動的に徴収されています。

しかし、いつから払えばいいのか、いつまで払えばいいのか、いつからもらえるかは把握していない人が多いのではないでしょうか。

ということで、ここでは加入年齢と受給年齢、受給資格、国民年金との違いについて紹介します。

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加入年齢と加入期間は

国民年金は、20歳から納付を始めることは多くの方がご存知のことでしょう。対して、厚生年金はどうなのかというと、20歳以上と加入年齢が定められているものではありません。

保険料の納付義務が生じるのは、会社に所属したそのときからになります。つまり、働き出した年齢がすなわち加入年齢です。このため、中学卒業後15歳ですぐに就職をすると、15歳から加入することになります。

これ以外でも、パートやアルバイトで働いていて、正社員採用となった場合は、正社員になった時点から加入することになります。

それでは、保険料はいつまで払わなければいけないかというと、加入期間は定められていません。会社に所属し社員として働いている限りは、納付を続ける義務があります。

このため、60歳を超えている場合でも、正社員として働いている場合は、保険料を支払わなければいけません。しかしながら、70歳までという加入制限が定められてもいます。

まとめると、支払う義務がなくなるのは、70歳を超えるか、雇用形態の変更、退職したときになります。

支給を受けられる年齢は

厚生年金で納付していた保険料は、老齢厚生年金として支給されます。現在の受給年齢は原則65歳です。

しかし、以前は60歳から受け取れていたので、60歳から受け取れるとして老後の生活を計画していた方への施策として、現在は受給年齢を段階的に引き上げて調整しています。

この施策は、特別支給年金制度と呼ばれ、1階部分の定額部分と2階部分の報酬比例部分との、2段階からなるものです。

昭和16年4月1日以前生まれの男性、昭和21年4月1日以前生まれの女性は、1階部分と2階部分のすべてを受け取れます。

これ以降生まれの方は、61歳、62歳、63歳、64歳と報酬比例部分は全額受け取れますが、定額部分を受け取れる年齢が後退していく仕組みです。

さらに、昭和22年4月2日以降に生まれた男性、昭和29年4月2日以降に生まれた女性からは、2階部分の報酬比例部分は受け取れますが、1階部分の定額部分は65歳からの支給となります。

ここからさらに年が若くなるたびに、報酬比例部分の支給年齢も引き上げられていきます。この制度の対象となるのは、昭和36年4月1日以前に生まれた男性、昭和41年4月1日以前に生まれの女性までです。

したがって、これ以降に生まれた方の受給年齢は65歳からとなります。

気になる受給資格について

老齢厚生年金は、65歳から受け取れますが、受給するためには2つの条件があります。それは支給要件を満たしていることと、加入期間が1ヶ月以上あることです。

支給要件とは、年金に加入している期間を合わせた合計が、10年以上あるかどうかということです。例えば、厚生年金を支払っていた期間が5年と、10年に満たない場合を想定しましょう。

この場合、国民年金を5年支払っていいれば、合わせると10年になるので、要件を満たしているということになります。ちなみに、以前は加入期間が25年以上と定められていましたが、平成29年度8月1日から10年に短縮されます。

加入期間が1ヶ月以上とは、会社に所属して1ヶ月間しか保険料を支払っていない場合でも、老齢厚生年金を受け取る権利を得られるということです。

しかし、1ヶ月の加入期間では支給される金額は、微々たるものになります。これは、保険料を支払っていないと、お金は受け取れないという至極当たり前な要件です。

一度も払ったことのない人物は、国民年金に加入し支給を受けることになります。

国民年金の違いとそのメリット

国民年金は保険料が、一律16490円(平成29年度)と安くていいのですが、その分受け取れる支給額も少なくなります。

対して、厚生年金は、支払額は年収に保険料率18.300%(平成29年度)がかけられて支払額が決まるために、年収が高いほど、負担は大きくなる制度設計です。

しかし、保険料を支払うことは、同時に国民年金をおさめていることになるので、支給では基礎部分を含めて2段階分受け取れるというメリットがあります。

このため、同じ期間保険料をおさめていた場合、確実に多くの金額を受け取れます。また、支払っていた金額が多いほど、支給額が多くなるのも良いところと言えるでしょう。

これ以外にも、保険料は自身と勤めている会社が折半する形になるため、納付の負担も軽減されています。くわえて、被保険者が亡くなった場合に配偶者や子どもに対し支払われる、遺族年金についても手厚いものがあります。

配偶者、子どもさらに孫や親、祖父母までが対象で、支給停止もありません。国民年金の場合は、子どものいる配偶者自身と子どものみが支給の対象となります。

子どものいない配偶者には支給なく、子どもが18歳になった最初の3月31日で支給は停止します。

最後に

厚生年金の加入年齢に決まりはなく、会社に勤めることになると自動的に加入することになり、受給は原則的に65歳からとなります。

保険料の納付は、会社に勤めている限り70歳を迎えるまで義務が生じ、金額も多額です。

しかし支給額は多く、優遇措置もありメリットが多いと言えるでしょう。

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