いまさら聞けない年金入門|在職老齢年金とは?

最近では、60歳以降も働く人が増えています。元気に働けるうちは、働きたいと考えるようですが、年金を受けられるはずの人が60歳以降も働くと、年金の一部または全額が支給停止されます。

これを 在職老齢年金制度といいます。

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在職老齢年金のしくみ

60歳代前半の場合、基本月額は特別支給の老齢厚生年金の月額となります。ただし、加給年金は除きます。総報酬月額相当額とは、その月の標準報酬月額にその月以前1年間の標準賞与額の合計を、12で割ったものを加えます。

そして、基本月額と総報酬月額相当額の合計が、28万円以下以下なら全額支給されることになっています。

その後の計算は、細かく分けられていて、総報酬月額相当額が47万円以下なのかどうかでも違ってきますし、基本月額が28万円以下かどうかでも変わります。

自分の当てはまるところの計算式に当てはめてみると、正確な額を算出することができます。60歳代後半の場合、基本月額と総報酬月額相当額の合計が47万円以下なら、全額支給されます。

47万円を超える場合には、総報酬月額相当額に基本月額を加えて47万円を引き、それを2で割った額を基本月額から引いて支給額を算出します。

これらの計算を踏まえ、働き方を考え直すケースもあります。調整を行うことになった場合、そのやり方について分からないことが、あれば専門家に相談することもできます。

在職老齢年金における給料の考え方

在職老齢年金で、どれだけカットされてしまうのかを求める場合、総報酬月額相当額を用いています。

この総報酬月額相当額は、標準報酬月額と標準賞与額の年間総額を、12で割った額となりますので、自分で思っている月額と差があると感じる人も多いようです。

標準報酬月額は、月給ですので毎日のお給料を見れば大体は分かりますが、そこに標準賞与額の年間総額を12で割ったが入りますので、意外と多いと感じます。

これらのことから、同じ月給をもらっているように見えるケースでも、カットされる額が違うということが起こり得ます。つまり、同じのは月給の部分だけであって、賞与の部分には差があったと考えることができます。

賞与が同じなら、カットされる額も同じになります。

具体的に額を算出する際には、例えば7月の額を出す場合、7月の標準報酬月額と、前年の8月からその年の7月までの直近1年間に支給された賞与の額を合計して、12で割ったものを足すことになります。

少しややこしいのですが、賞与はその年度のものではなく、直近の一年分であるというところがポイントになります。

働き方を考え直す良い機会

在職老齢年金制度によって、もらえるはずの年金がカットされてしまうのなら、上手く調整してセーブしながら働きたいと考える人もいます。

たくさん働いても損をしてしまうのなら、計算をしてちょうど良い範囲で働くのが、一番賢い選択かもしれません。

カットされる額を考える場合、対象となるのは老齢厚生年金だけだということを、覚えておかなければなりません。

国民年金から支給される、老齢基礎年金は対象となりませんので、その辺りの仕組みをしっかりと、把握しておく必要があります。他にも、遺族年金や障害年金は調整が行われません。

老齢厚生年金が、調整の対象となると述べましたが、厳密にいうとこれも全てではありません。65歳未満の配偶者や18歳未満の子どもがいることで、加算される加給年金は対象とはなりません。

本体の老齢厚生年金が、1円でも支給されることになれば、加給年金は調整されずに、全額支給されることになります。

ただし、これには例外があり、調整額が老齢厚生年金額を超えるようなケースでは、加給年金も支給停止されてしまいます。

働きながら年金を受け取る場合の注意点

60歳を過ぎても働き続けることは、今や当たり前の世の中になっています。

働きながら受給することになった時に注意しなければならないこととして、65歳未満の場合には、年収の12分の1が28万円、65歳以上の場合には年収の12分の1が46万円を超えると、支給停止調整が開始されるということを、確認しておかなければなりません。

年収が低ければ、これには該当しませんので調整には至りませんが、超えてしまうと、もらえるはずだった分がもらえなくなります。

60歳以上になると、会社規定によって給与が下がることが多いのですが、一定額以上下がった場合には、雇用保険から高年齢雇用継続給付という給付金を、65歳まで受け取ることができます。

そうすると、給料と年金と雇用保険が入ってくることになりますが、この場合は老齢厚生年金について、在職老齢年金での調整に加えて更なる調整がありますので、注意が必要です。

また、会社を退職した時にもらえる失業給付とは、時期が重なることも多いのですが、両方をもらうことはできませんので、その点にも気をつけなければなりません。

最後に

60歳を超えても働く人が増えていますが、年収の12分の1を算出してみて60代前半なら28万円、60代後半なら46万円を超えると年金の一部または全額が支給停止されますので、該当する場合には、在職老齢年金の仕組みについて学んでおかなければなりません。

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