いまさら聞けない年金入門|国民年金の仕組み

国民年金は、日本に住む20歳から60歳までの人が加入する、公的な年金制度です。

国民年金は、加入が義務付けられているので、基本的には20歳から60歳になるまで、国民年金を払い続けることになります。

ただ、最近は国民年金を払えない人も多く、若い世代の未納が社会問題にもなっています。

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日本の年金制度について

日本の年金制度は、その仕組みを家に例えて説明されることが多いです。公的年金だけだと、2階建てになります。1階部分が、日本国民共通の年金制度である国民年金で、2階部分が会社員や公務員のための制度である厚生年金です。

公務員の場合、2015年10月から共済年金は厚生年金に一元化されています。現在の制度では、日本国内に居住する20歳以上の人は、すべて国民年金に加入することになっています。

土台となる基礎の部分なので、支給されるものは基礎年金と呼ばれています。会社に勤務している人は、厚生年金に加入しています。

加入するタイプや保険料は、ライフスタイルによって変わります。自営業や学生、無職の人は、第1被保険者となります。会社員や公務員などは、第2被保険者で、専業主婦は、第3号被保険者となります。

第1号被保険者と第3被保険者は、国民年金のみに加入し、第2被保険者は、国民年金と厚生年金に加入します。

国民年金の支給開始年齢は65歳で、自分が納付した期間に応じた給付額を支給されることになります。

払えない場合はどうするか

現在、日本では年金の未納問題が社会問題となっています。学生の人や失業した人、所得が低い人など、保険料を納めることが難しい人に対しては、一時的に保険料の納付を猶予したり、納付を免除してくれる制度があります。

納付を免除してもらった期間も、猶予された期間も、どちらも年金を受け取るために必要な受給資格期間として算入されますが、将来受け取ることができる額は、全額保険料を納付した場合に比べて少なくなります。

納付を免除してもらった期間や、猶予してもらった期間は、後から申請して保険料を納めることも可能です。後から納付した場合は、年金額の計算をする時に、保険料を全額納付した場合と同様に扱ってもらえます。

免除と猶予では、年金額が異なります。猶予の場合、猶予された期間は年金額へは、反映されません。一方、免除された場合は、免除された期間が一部年金額へ反映されるのです。

猶予も免除も、利用するためには手続きが必要になります。手続きについては、事前によく確認しておくことが大切です。

手続きをしないと、将来困ることになるので、忘れずに手続きをすることが大事です。

国民年金が未納なままだと

日本では、若い世代を中心に、会社に勤めずにフリーターをしている人が少なくありません。20歳を超えた人は、国民年金を支払う必要があります。

ただ、国民年金の場合は、会社員のように給与から天引きされることはありません。自主的に、保険料を支払う必要があるのです。そのため、支払いを忘れてしまう人や、自分の意志で支払わない人もかなりの数になります。

若い人の中には、国民年金の仕組みがよくわかっていない人もいます。学校を卒業して働いていても、国民年金の仕組みを知る機会がなかった人も少なくありません。

しかし、どのような理由であっても、国民年金の保険料を支払わないと、様々なデメリットがあります。日本では、2015年から国民年金未納者からの強制徴収を強化しています。

強制徴収は、すべての人が対象ではありません。ただ、年々強制徴収の条件は厳しくなっています。支払いを忘れている人は、なるべく早く支払った方が安心です。

国民年金の保険料を支払わないと、特別催告状が届きます。強制徴収では、財産の差し押さえも行われています。

将来のためにきちんと支払うことが大事

国民年金は、老後に受け取るものと考えている人は少なくありません。しかし、年金には支給事由が3つあるのです。それは、国民年金の支給年齢になった時、一定の障害の状態になった時、死亡した時です。

支給年齢になった時と、障害の状態になった時については、保険料を支払った本人が受け取り、死亡した時は、遺族が受け取ります。

公的年金は、所得の減った場合に、生活の保障をするという意味合いがあります。保険料を滞納すると、ケガや病気で障害が残った場合に、障害基礎年金をもらえなくなる可能性が出てくるので気を付ける必要があります。

2017年8月から、受給資格期間が25年から10年へ短縮しています。受給資格期間の短縮によって、国民年金の受給資格を得た人が増えました。

ただ、10年というのは、受給するための最低条件であり、10年しか加入していない場合は、その分だけしか支給されません。保険料を納める期間が長ければ長いほど、受給額は多くなります。

日本は平均寿命が長くなり、退職後の生活も長くなります。ですから、できるだけ受給額を増やしておいた方が、老後の安心が広がります。

最後に

日本では、経済的に苦しい人が多くなっています。経済的に苦しいと、毎月生活するだけで大変で、将来のことを考えられない人もいます。

しかし、現在保険料を支払っておけば、老後の経済的な心配が、それだけ少なくなります。

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