いまさら聞けない年金入門|年金の受給資格

公的年金は、国民皆年金制度とも呼ばれ、国民が20歳を迎えたときから、加入を必ずしなければならない制度です。

この受給資格は、かつては25年以上の支払期間が必要でしたが、現在では法改正が行われ、10年以上でも老齢年金の受給が可能になりました。

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原則20歳以上から支払うこと

20歳になった月から支払の義務が生じるため、まだ大学生の場合などにあっては支払が厳しいという話もあります。

学生の場合には、猶予の申請などを行ったり、あるいは保護者などが代わりに支払うなどして、対応に当たるケースも少なくありません。

また、納付を忘れていたりした場合でも、後日納付を行うことにより、受給要件にカウントされる場合があり得ます。

制度が非常に複雑なため、20歳になって支払の義務が生じた際には、まずは手続きを行い、その上で納付が困難などの事情説明を行うことが大切です。

20歳になったのに何もせずにいると未納扱いとなり、受給要件を満たさなくなる恐れが出たり、あるいは将来もらえるであろう老齢年金が、減額されることが出てきます。

手続きを確実に行うこと、20歳になったら支払の義務があることをよく踏まえた上での、行動が求められます。なお、この年金保険料は、支払った人の社会保険料控除に計上が可能です。

したがって、保護者、両親などが代わりに支払ったときには、支払った人の社会保険料控除に加えることにより、所得税及び住民税の減税に繋げられます。

加入すべき年金制度の種類

原則20歳以上になると、加入しなければならない制度ですが、このとき、たとえば高校卒業からすぐに働き出す人もいます。

20歳になったときには加入しなければなりませんが、このとき勤務先が厚生年金、あるいは厚生共済年金すなわち公務員等の場合には、勤務先が加入を行いその保険料を代わりに支払っていく流れとなります。

自営業や無職、学生などの場合は、自らが国民年金制度への加入及び、納付を行う必要が生じます。加入する先の年金制度をよく知っておくことが求められます。

なお、国家にしても地方にしても公務員の場合、かつては共済年金制度への加入でした。ところが平成27年に行われた年金一元化法の関係で、共済も厚生への統合が行われています。

その分だけ、今まで優遇されてきた保険料負担が増大しているため、かつてのように公務員優遇の動きが変わってきている状態です。

このように、会社員や公務員のように雇用されて労働している場合には、原則として厚生への加入となり、それ以外は国民年金への加入となることを、理解しておくことが大事となります。

万が一の時に申請を行うこと

就労している場合でも、あるいは自営業などの場合でも、ケガや病気などで中長期的に労働に支障があるあるいは、労働そのものが出来ないといったことは、誰にでもあり得ることです。

このとき、働けないときには、収入の道が無くなってしまいます。しかしながら、日本の公的年金制度はこうしたときでも、カバーが出来るように制度設計がなされているものです。

いわゆる障害年金制度であり、万が一のときには非常に心強いものとなっています。ただし、受給のハードルは高く、書類を多く揃えなければいけません。

また、制度そのものが非常に分かりづらいことや、主治医側への依頼なども必要になるなど、受給申請者にとってはやらなければならないことも多いため、途中で諦めてしまうケースが後を絶ちません。

その他にも、この制度には受給要件が課せられているため、初診日までに年金保険料の未納などがある場合には、この障害年金制度の適用が受けられないケースもあり得ます。

この点においても、未納の状態のままで放置をしないことが、求められます。万が一未納になりそうなときには、相談を行うなどして適切な対処が大事です。

受給要件と受給額の関係

受給要件は、かつては年金保険料を25年以上支払うことが、受給資格として必要でした。ところが法改正により、その25年以上が10年以上に短縮されています。

ただ、10年に短くなったからといっても、10年間だけ支払えばいいわけではありません。納付義務はついて回りますし、もし未納期間があるとその分だけ受給額が減額になってしまいます。

したがって、支払えない理由があるときには、免除申請を行うなどして、未納にならないようにするとともに、もし経済状況が好転するなどした場合には、未納分の納付や免除分の追納申請を行うなどして、未納を解消し納付を行っていくことが求められます。

また、自営業の人の場合には、40年間分をしっかりと納付しても、受給額はそれほど高額とまではいきません。

このため、たとえば付加保険料の加入及び支払や、国民年金基金等への加入及び支払で、受給出来るものを増やす自助努力が求められます。

なお、それ以外にも民間の制度などもありますが、公的な制度は税負担で優遇されているため、まずは公的制度の活用を考えることが優先です。

最後に

原則65歳以上で受給資格を得る老齢年金は、10年以上の納付及び免除期間が必要です。

ただし、免除期間がある場合や納付期間が少ない場合には、その分だけ減額されるため、その他の制度でカバーすることも考えることが必要になります。

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