いまさら聞けない年金入門|年金受給額の計算方法

一般に年金といえば、将来リタイア後の生活を支えるために支払われるものを想像する人がほとんどです。

これは正確には、老齢年金といわれるもので、複数の制度に加入したことがあれば、それぞれ各制度から支払われる仕組みであり、老後の計画をたてるためにも、自分はいくらもらえるのか計算できるようになることが大事です。

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加入期間に応じて金額が決まる

年金受給の基礎となる老齢年金を、一体いくらもらえるのかは、それぞれの年金制度により異なります。一番わかりやすいのが、老齢基礎年金です。

国民年金から支払われる年金受給額は、基本的に制度加入の期間によって決まります。具体的な年金受給額は、上限いっぱいの40年加入したとして、年額およそ80万円になります。

大雑把な計算でいけば、加入期間が1年短くなるごとに、年間で2万円ずつ減り、上限で80万円ということは月に7万円弱となり、最低限の生活を守るのが老齢基礎年金の役割です。

ただし、受け取るためには条件があります。以前は、最低25年の加入が必要でしたが、平成27年度より免除制度を利用した期間を含む、最低10年間の加入で受給資格を満たすとなっています。

すでに支払った保険料を、無駄にしない工夫も必要です。もし、免除申請をした場合、全額、4分の3、半額、4分の1免除となりますが、この期間も申請が認められれば期間にカウントされます。

その場合、半額免除となる場合の年金受給額の計算方法は、保険支払い対応分2分の1と、保険料免除分2分の1を足して、それに2分の1を乗じたものが年金受給額となり、仮に40年間半額免除で納めたとすれば、年額60万円を受け取ることが可能です。

老齢厚生年金の計算方法

老齢年金と異なり、老齢厚生年金の計算方法は少し複雑で、制度に加入していた期間、つまりその職業に就いていた期間に加えて、現役時代の報酬の額に対応して決まります。

このように、加入期間だけでなく、現役時代の報酬の多寡によって、年金受給額に違いがでるものを報酬比例年金といいます。

具体的な計算方法は、大まかにいけば、現役時代のボーナスを含めた、報酬の月あたり平均額に5.481を乗じたものを1000で割り、通算勤続年数あるいは加入月数を乗じます。

たとえば、勤務期間を通しての報酬の月額平均が40万円で、勤続35年の人の場合、計算するとおよそ年額92万円となります。

ただし、ここで使用する報酬の月額平均は、年金の計算上、62万円が限度です。つまり、実際には月収100万円をもらっていたとしても、年金額の計算上は上限の62万円で計算します。

逆に、どんなに給料が低い人でも、計算上は9万8000円で計算される仕組みです。この上限62万円で勤続35年で計算するとなると、年金受給額はおよそ143万円になります。

障害基礎年金についても知っておこう

老齢年金以外にも、一定の条件を満たすことで、障害者基礎年金が支払われます。病気やケガで働けなくなった時のための機能であり、障害等級により金額が決まります。

1級の場合、年金受給額の満額の1.25倍、2級は老齢基礎年金と同額です。仮に受給の際に18歳までの子供がいる場合には、一定の加算があります。

また、サラリーマンや公務員の場合は、さらに加算されます。

これは、通常の受給額の計算の時と同様に、加入年数と報酬によって受給額が変わりますが、加入期間が短い場合は極端に支給額が少なくなってしまうので、一律300か月、25年分を支払うという最低ラインが設けられているので、安心です。

そして、1級と2級の受給者に生計を維持されている、65歳未満の配偶者がいる場合には、加給され家族手当のような給付が加わります。

また、3級までの障害が残らなかった場合でも、一時金として障害手当金が支払われることもあります。金額は報酬比例の年金受給額の2倍で、115万200円に足りない時には、115万200円の最低ラインがある仕組みです。

毎月400円上乗せして受給額を増やそう

第1号被保険者となる、自営業者やフリーターの人であれば付加年金といって、毎月の保険料の支払いに400円プラスするだけで、年金受給額を上乗せすることができます。

仮に20年間続けたとすると、9万6000円となり、上乗せ額の計算方法は納めた額の2分の1で計算しますので、年額4万8000円上乗せされることになるわけです。

つまり、2年間受給すれば回収できる計算となり、全部で9万6000円の投資で、毎年4万8000円のリターンがあるようなものということになります。

最高で40年間納めた場合でも、総支払額が19万2000円で、年額9万6000円上乗せされることになります。

民間で提供されている金融商品に、これほど確実で高利回りの商品はないですから、自営業者の人は特に加入しておくとお得です。

また、通常の保険料の支払いと同様に、付加額の分も年払いにして、まとめて支払うと割引があるので、可能であれば、年払いにしたほうがよりリターンが多くなります。

ただし、基金制度や免除を受けている人は、加入できませんので注意が必要です。

最後に

定年退職後は、年金が生活の主な原資となります。自分を含め配偶者がいくら受給できるのかを知っておくことはとても大事なことです。

複数の職場に勤めていたので、自分では計算が難しいという場合は、ねんきん特別便などでも確認できますので、若いうちから把握しておくことが大事です。

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