劇場へ見に行こう!今見るべき「オペラ」の魅力に迫る!


オペラとは演劇と音楽の2つによって構成される舞台芸術のことであり、別名歌劇とも呼ばれています。

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オペラの楽しみ方

オペラの始まりとその歴史について

オペラの始まりというのははっきりとは分かっていませんが、今のところ16世紀末、フィレンツェでギリシャ悲劇を模範に歌うようなセリフを用いた劇が考えられたのが始まりではないかと言われています。

オペラだと見なされているものの中で最古の作品だと言われているのが、1597年頃のヤコポ・ペーリによる「ダフネ」ですが、作品そのものは現存していません。

後に1600年以降に作曲されたペーリの「エウリディーチェ」が今日に残る作品の中で最初のオペラ作品とされています。

このことからペーリは「オペラの発明者」と言われています。

演じ方や作曲者が違えば、同じオペラでも違った顔を見せるものです。

その国の特色や作曲者の心情などが表現されていますが、そんな中でも正統派だと言われているのはイタリア・オペラです。

様々な国の作曲者が母国語で作品を作ったとしても、正統派であるイタリア語の台本に作曲されたほどです。

イタリア音楽こそが最高のものであるという認識があったため、どこの宮廷においてもイタリア人音楽家を重用していました。

そんな中でもドイツやフランスなど他国でも独立した形式が確立していくようになりました。

また貴族だけを対象にしたものではなく、国民的作品なども数多く存在し、幅広い人々に愛されてきました。

そしてそのオペラ文化は今でも続いており、主に劇場にて楽しむことができます。

長い年月を経て作品も数多く存在し、表現者も世界中に存在しています。

劇場でしか出せないオペラの魅力

オペラはただ歌をうたっているように見えますが、実は正式には歌ではありません。

セリフにメロディーがついているというのが正確な表現であり、一般的な音楽のように歌詞がついているわけではありません。

そのため作品の世界観やストーリーをストレートに楽しむことができます。

オペラにおける魅力というのは、まず劇場にあります。

もちろん劇場というものが存在しなかった時代には、小さな建物の中や外で行われていたものですが、現在では劇場にて行われるのが一般的です。

もとは貴族たちが楽しんでいることが多かったため、広くて華やかな劇場で行われていました。

現在でも世界的オペラ劇場は非常に広く、高貴な雰囲気が漂っています。

歌を楽しむだけではなく、その雰囲気も楽しむことで非日常を味わうことができます。

オペラでよく見られるのが1人が歌うソロですが、実際にはオーケストラの演奏であったり、複数人で歌ったりという形式もあります。

静かな空気の中、歌や演奏が響き渡って会場全体を包み込んでくれるのです。

その迫力は音が反響しやすい劇場だからこその魅力でしょう。

劇場には様々な特徴があります。

まず舞台の奥に大きな空間が設けられています。

それがなければ、劇の流れに合わせて大道具を入れ替えたりということができないのです。

オペラにおいて歌は一番重要ですが、ストーリーあるものなので雰囲気や大道具を使った演出などもとても大切です。

そのため本格的な劇場であれば、非常に大きなスペースが設けられています。

コンサートホールのように反響板がないため、オペラ歌手はよく通る声で歌うことが求められるのです。

オペラで歌とストーリーを楽しもう

オペラは歌を楽しむというものではありません。

セリフを聞き取り、歌手が表現する登場人物の心情を汲み取りながらストーリーを楽しむものです。

そのため全体を聞かなければ作品をきちんと理解することはできません。

オペラに関して知識があるわけではないという人であれば、とてもハードルが高く感じてしまうものです。

そのため劇場に行くのではなくCDから好きなアリアを取り出して聞くという人もいますが、それはあまりおすすめできません。

とても簡単で誰でも楽しめる方法ですが、それでは作品全体を聞くことができないためストーリーを深く理解することができません。

オペラはその世界観を楽しむ舞台芸術です。

あまり知識がないからこそ劇場で見るべきなのです。

自宅でCDを聞く方がリラックスして聞くことができるかもしれませんが、大きな劇場だからこそその迫力を体感できるのです。

その雰囲気と音の響き、そして歌手の表情や周りの演出など、耳だけではなく目でも楽しむことができます。

昔は舞台を見ながら食事をしたり、好きな時に席を立って歩き回ったり、声を出して笑ったりするのも珍しくはありませんでした。

こういったラフな振る舞いが禁じられるようになってからは、誰も舞台を見ながら食事をすることも、席を立って声をあげることもしなくなりました。

舞台の世界観を守るためには沈黙が必要不可欠です。

またその雰囲気を壊さないためにも、ある程度キレイな装いをすることは必要です。

決まりがあるわけではありませんが、ジーパンなどのカジュアルすぎる服装は雰囲気を壊してしまいます。

タキシードを着るまではしなくても良いですが、エチケットだと思って節度ある装いや振る舞いを心がけましょう。

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