肌の老化を防ぐポリフェノールは【大豆】で摂ろう!

大豆には、ポリフェノールが含まれており、それを抽出したものが大豆イソフラボンです。

大豆イソフラボンは、ポリフェノールの1種で、大豆胚芽に多く含まれている天然有機化合物のフラボノイドで、コレステロールを低下したり、動脈硬化を予防する効果などがあります。

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更年期障害を予防する働きがあります

大豆イソフラボンにはさまざまな効果があり、エストロゲン作用があるので更年期障害を予防したり、緩和したり、お肌の状態を維持することが可能です。

アグリコンタイプのイソフラボンは、女性ホルモンであるエストロゲンと分子構造が似ており、吸収されると体内でにおいてエストロゲン受容体を結合し、エストロゲンの活性効果を示します。

エストロゲンなどの、女性ホルモンの減少による更年期のいろいろな症状を緩和するとされています。

抗ガン作用もあり、男性にも男性ホルモンのバランスによって発症されるとする、前立腺肥大症などがあり、近年アグリコンタイプのイソフラボンには、前立腺肥大症や前立腺ガンなどを予防する作用があると確認されました。

その他にも期待される効果があり、抗酸化作用やコレステロールを低下したり、動脈硬化を予防したり血流を改善する作用があります。

骨粗鬆症の予防にも効果があり、イソフラボンの摂取量は、成人女性の場合、1日約40㎎と設定されていて、これは豆腐では約半丁、納豆では約1パック、きな粉では大さじ1杯に相当するでしょう。

活性酸素を除去したり動脈硬化を予防します

豆類は食物繊維やサポニン、ポリフェノールなどの機能性成分が含まれています。ポリフェノールは分子構造において、フェノール基をたくさん持つ有機化合物のことで、植物では色素や苦み成分などとして含まれます。

豆のさまざまな色は、豆料理の魅力を増しますが、赤や紫・黒などはアントシアニン系の色素で、褐色やクリームなどの色素はフラボノイド系によるものです。

これらはポリフェノールに属するもので、大豆イソフラボンはフラボノイドの1種になります。

ポリフェノールに属しているものは、強い抗酸化作用を持っており、健康にいろいろな悪影響を与える活性酸素を除去したり、動脈硬化を予防したり、心臓病を予防します。

免疫力を増強したり、血管の保護や発がん物質の活性化を抑制するなどの効果があるそうです。豆類に含まれているポリフェノール含量と、抗酸化活性との間には相関関係があり、その大部分はポリフェノールに由来されます。

抗酸化活性は、あずきや金時豆などの濃い種皮色の豆類の方が高いそうです。あずきの煮汁には、血清中性脂肪やLDLコレステロールなどが低下する傾向があると研究されています。

豊富な食物繊維があります

食物繊維の多い食べ物と言えば、ごぼうやさつまいもなどをを思い浮かべますが、あずきやいんげん豆には、ごぼう以上の食物繊維が含まれています。

大豆などの豆類は食べ物でも、食物繊維が多く含まれており、食物繊維は人間の消化酵素では消化されない、食品中にある難消化成分の総体と定義されていて、セルロースやリグニンなどの不溶性食物繊維と、粘質多糖類などの水溶性食物繊維に区分されます。

以前は、栄養成分の利用効率を低下するような、価値のない物質として考えられていました。

しかし近年、健康維持には不可欠な働きがあることが分かり、特に不溶性食物繊維を多く含む食品は、食べる際に咀嚼する回数を増やすため、早食いを防いだり、胃に長く留まることによって満腹感が得やすく、食べ過ぎたり肥満の防止にも役立つでしょう。

体内で水分を吸収することによって、膨張した便が増加したり膨軟化するので、腸を刺激したり、ぜん動運動を活発にするので、便秘の予防や改善にも役立ちお肌も美しくします。

発がん性物質はもちろん、腸にある有害物質などの早期排出を促進したり、大腸がんの予防にも硬貨があり、重要な機能性成分として考えられています。

コレステロールを低下させます

大豆などの豆類には、水溶性食物繊維があり、体内において水分を含みゲル状になり、糖分などの吸収速度を遅らせるので、食後の血糖値の上昇を予防したり、インスリンの消費を防ぐので糖尿病を予防することが可能です。

コレステロールが吸収するのを抑制したり、コレステロールによる胆汁酸を吸着し、体外に排出のに血中コレステロールを低下したり、動脈硬化を予防することができます。

豆類の食物繊維は不溶性が多いですが、水溶性も含んでおり、豆類に含まれているでんぷんの一部は、加熱すると難消化性でんぷんとなり、食物繊維化します。

このため、豆の種類によって、ゆでると食物繊維の質量が、乾燥豆の状態より大幅に増加します。例えばあずきやいんげん豆、ひよこ豆は1.5~1.6倍になります。

食品の中で、効率的に食物繊維を摂ることができる豆類を活用し、毎日の食卓に積極的に取り入れることで、生活習慣病を予防することが可能です。

サポニンは、糖に水酸基をもつ有機化合物などが結合したもので、大豆をゆでた際に浮き出る泡は、アクとして取り除かれますが、この中にサポニンが含まれています。

サポニンには強い抗酸化作用があり、動脈硬化を抑制したり、血液中の中性脂肪などを低下させる働きがあります。

最後に

大豆などの豆類は、炭水化物やたんぱく質、ビタミンやミネラルなどの栄養素がバランス良く含まれており、食物繊維が多く、ポリフェノールなどの機能性成分もあり、お肌を美しくしたり毎日の健康をサポートする優れた食品です。

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