イベント好き必見!作品作りの関わる資格「レコーディングエンジニア」

レコーディングエンジニアとは、音楽作品を制作するスペシャリスト(技術者)です。私たちの身の回りには、音楽作品で溢れていると言っても過言ではありません。

お店に入ればBGMが流されていますし、テレビや動画サイトのCMでも音楽が流れています。CDやDVDなどの媒体で、音楽が配布されています。

これらの音源は全て、音楽スタジオでレコーディングエンジニアと呼ばれる技術者によって録音・編集されたものです。

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レコーディングエンジニアの仕事内容とは

音楽作品を制作するまでに、主に5つの作業が行われます。

1 作詞・作曲
2 レコーディング
3 編集
4 マスターテープ制作
5 マスターテープの製品化

一連の作業の中で、レコーディングエンジニアの仕事は、2・3・4です。最初に、外部と遮断されたスタジオの中でアーティストがスタジオ内で歌唱または演奏を行い、マイクで電気信号に変換して記録します。

昔はアナログレコードや磁気テープで録音が行われていましたが、現在はデジタル信号に変換されてCDやDVDなどの媒体に記録されています。単に音楽を録音するだけでは「作品」にはなりません。

編集作業を行い、1つの音楽作品にまとめる必要があります。レコーディングは、最初から最後まで1曲丸ごと演奏して録音するとは限りません。場合によっては1小節ずつ小分けに録音を行い、それらを繋ぎ合わせて最後に1つの音楽作品として、まとめる場合もあります。

編集作業の際に、必要に応じてミキシングを行います。スタジオによっては、レコーディングとミキシング作業で役割分担する場合もあります。いずれの作業もレコーディングエンジニアの重要な仕事で、最終的にマスターCDを完成させる所までを担当します。

レコーディングエンジニアに求められる知識や技術とは

スタジオで、音楽を録音して最終的に音楽作品に仕上げるまでには、専門的な知識や技術を必要とします。レコーディングエンジニアの仕事は、レコーディングの際にそれぞれの楽器の配置や組合わせを設計することから、スタートします。

音楽作品は、別々に録音した複数の音源をミキシングして、最終的にオーケストラの形式に仕上げます。楽器ごとに音の強弱や性質が異なるため、バランス良く録音するためにマイクの位置や配置を決めます。

技術者ではありますが、芸術家としての感性も求められます。レコーディングの計画を立てたら、実際にスタジオでアーティストが演奏する楽曲を録音します。録音とは、空気中を伝わる振動(音)を電気的な信号に変換して、記録する作業です。

録音に使用するマイクには、種類ごとに得意・不得意が存在するので、楽器ごとに適切なマイクを選択する必要があります。レコーディングを行うスタジオの規模や、形状によって音の伝わり方や共振周波数(ハウリングする周波数)が異なるため、ミキサーの調整を行う必要もあります。

このため、レコーディングエンジニアには、空気中を伝わる音の性質や、マイクやアンプ・ミキサーなどの各種機器を扱うための知識や技術が求められます。録音した音を、ひとつの音楽作品にまとめるのもレコーディングエンジニアの仕事です。

大抵の場合、楽器・パートごとに別々に録音を行い、ミキシングして最終的にひとつの楽曲にまとめます。場合によっては、同じ曲を何度も演奏して録音を行い、各回で良い部分だけを切り取って繋ぎ合わせる作業も行います。

ミキシングの際は、録音したそれぞれの音の強弱を調節して、バランスが良くなるように加工します。最初に頭の中で思い描いたイメージ通りの作品に仕上げるためには、音響装置を扱う技術と、オーケストラの指揮者のような感性の両方が求められます。

レコーディングエンジニアに関係する資格

レコーディングエンジニアになるためには、何か特定の資格を取得することが必須という訳ではありませんが、レコーディングスタジオに就職して、仕事をするために役に立つ検定資格があります。

一般社団法人日本音楽スタジオ協会が実施する、サウンドレコーディング技術認定試験に受験すれば、レコーディングやミキシング作業を行う際に求められる、専門的な知識を持っていることを証明することができます。

サウンドレコーディング技術認定試験は、4択式の筆記試験(マークシート式)が実施されます。試験結果は、他の多くの資格試験のように合格・不合格ではなく、A~Eのランク別の成績と各分野ごとの得点が記された認定証が発行されます。

認定証を取得すればレコーディングエンジニアとして必要な知識を持っていることを証明することができ、日本音楽スタジオ協会に加盟しているレコーディングスタジオに就職する際に役立ちます。

サウンドレコーディング技術認定試験の出題内容ですが、「Pro Tools概要」「Pro Tools概要」「ミキシング」「シンク・MIDI・ファイル管理など」です。参考書は「サウンドレコーディング技術概論・改訂版」「音楽録音スタジオにおける音響設計ガイドブック」「サウンドレコーディング技術認定試験問題集&巻末技術資料集」(いずれも日本音楽スタジオ協会発行)です。

イベント・音楽系の資格には、サウンドレコーディング技術認定試験以外にも、「Pro Tools技術認定試験」「映像音響処理技術者」「MIDI検定」などもあります。

イベント・音楽系の職種に興味がある方は、他の認定試験・資格と一緒に取得しておくと良いでしょう。

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