栽培しやすいハーブの種類:オレガノ

育てやすいハーブの1つにオレガノがあります。

オレガノの品種や育て方について紹介します。

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多くの種類があるオレガノ

オレガノ栽培の原産地や主な活用

オレガノがいつから利用されてきたのか、最も古い時代の記録では紀元前からとなっています。

香りに特徴があり、ヨーロッパの地中海沿岸やアジアの東部地域などが原産となっています。

語源はギリシア語でオリガナム、意味は山の喜びです。

古代ローマでは、幸せのシンボルとして新郎新婦の花冠に仕立てていました。

ヨーロッパ全体に広まったのは中世です。

栽培地域が広範囲になっている理由として、品種が多く、見かけも性質も異なるからで、大きく分けて3種類に分類されています。

オリガヌム類、マヨラナ類、アマラクス類の3つです。

原種はこのように分かれていますが、園芸観賞用に交配して作られた品種などもあります。

過去、エジプトなどで入浴後に精油マッサージを行っていた記録が残っていますが、現在では3つの利用法があり、花を観賞する園芸種向きのもの、キッチンハーブとして料理に葉が使用されるもの、精油を使用する事に分かれています。

日本に伝来したのは江戸末期になってからで、園芸鑑賞用として入ってきました。

和名を花薄荷といいます。
シソ科で、マジョラムの近縁種でワイルドマジョラムとも呼ばれます。

品種別に今あるオレガノを取り上げると、オリガヌム類ではワイルドマジョラム、ゴールデンオレガノ、オレガノヘレンハウゼン、グリークオレガノなどで、耐寒性があるものです。

料理に向くのはマヨラナ類で、スイートマジョラム、ポットマジョラム、イタリアンオレガノ、シリアンオレガノ、オレガノミクロフィルムなど。

花を主に観賞するアマラクス類は半耐寒性で、高温多湿に弱く、オレガノプルケルム、オレガノケントビューティーなどがあります。

オレガノ栽培の注意点と育て方

オレガノは栽培しやすいハーブですが、より良い状態で育てるには、元々の特徴で分類が3つに分かれていて、オリガヌム類、マヨラナ類、アマラクス類の3種類の分類がある事を覚えておくと、異なる栽培の注意点や手入れの方法がわかりやすくなります。

オリガヌム類、マヨラナ類は共に耐寒性があって比較的栽培がしやすいですが、高温多湿に弱い性質を持ちます。

3つの分類で特にアマラクス類は梅雨時の管理で長雨に当てないように、鉢植えが向いていて、軒下などへ移動する事が大事なポイントです。

また、品種でワイルドマジョラムとスイートマジョラムは種から育てるのに向いています。
蒔いた年は発芽せず、2年目から発育します。

スイートマジョラムは短命な傾向があるので密生して育て、どんどん葉を収穫しながら利用するようにします。

他の品種は種より株分けや挿し芽で増やすほうが無難です。

春と秋に苗を植えるのが最も簡単で、日当たりと水はけがいい場所で栽培します。
土にバーミキュライトや腐葉土を入れ、元肥に有機配合肥料を埋め込んでおく事です。

また、寒冷地では株元を腐葉土や敷きワラで保護します。
特に梅雨時期に密生しすぎて風通しが悪くなると病気や害虫を寄せてしまうきっかけになるので、乾燥気味にする事を心がけます。

観賞用オレガノケントビューティーなどは花の部分が枯れやすく、花がらはすぐに取り除く、夏場は葉にも少し水をかける、などの工夫が必要です。
日当たりが少ないとピンクの色が退色します。

ハーブの利用は花が咲くと葉が硬くなるので、咲き始めまでに収穫して乾燥させて使います。
花が咲かなくてもいいなら根元から収穫します。

生、乾燥とも香りがいいのはオリガヌム類のグリークオレガノで、マヨラナ類は甘くてスパイシーな香りが肉、ニンニク、トマト料理と相性が良いです。

愛の女神の言い伝えとオレガノ栽培のメリット

ハーブで使うには収穫後、根元をきつく縛って干し、乾燥させます。
乾燥したほうが香りが強くなる傾向があります。

密封容器に乾燥剤を入れて保存します。
また、酢やオイルに入れて香りを移す方法も比較的簡単です。

刈り取った後の株は冬に枯れますが、根が生きていれば春にまた芽を出します。
株が弱くなるようなら、だいたい2~3年ごとに株分けして育てます。

また、肥料のあげ過ぎには注意が必要で、株を弱らせて枯らせる結果になるので、あまり必要としません。

アマラクス類のディタニーオブクリートは観賞用で、クレタ島の花薄荷という意味があります。
同じ観賞用のオレガノケントビューティーも、ドライフラワーにして楽しみます。

色合いの変化が楽しめる鑑賞用品種は、花束でもポプリにしても贈り物に喜ばれる美しさが魅力です。
この美しさには、興味深い伝説も残っていて、ギリシア神話の愛の女神アフロディテがオレガノを海から作り、一番日当たりの良い高い山に植えたという言い伝えがあります。

それほどまでに大切なハーブとして昔から珍重されているオレガノを、身近に鑑賞したり、ハーブとして利用できれば、暮らしが豊かになります。

まさにそれこそぴったりな花言葉、輝き、財産、自然の恵み、あなたの苦痛を取り除きます、といういずれも素晴らしい暮らしの伴侶としての褒め言葉が付けられていて、贈り物に添えるメッセージとしても素敵なものとなっています。

見て楽しめて料理を美味しくできるハーブ、また、贈り物にも適した愛の女神が作ったハーブ、オレガノを栽培するメリットは大きいと言えます。

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