サッカーの基本ルール : オフサイド

サッカーは、選手が手を使わずに相手ゴールにボールを入れた本数で、勝敗が決める単純なスポーツです。

しかし、そんなサッカーを更に面白くしているルールがあります。それがオフサイドです。

サッカーをやり始めたばかりの人や、試合を見始めたばかりのファンにとっては、このルールは複雑でわかりにくいようですが、試合を楽しく行う又は観戦するためにも、基本ルールだけはしっかりと覚えておく必要があります。

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サッカーにおけるオフサイドの基本ルール

まずは、オフサイドポジションについて知っておかなければなりません。

基本的に、オフサイドは最も敵のゴールに近い攻撃側の選手と、そのゴールラインから数えて2番目にいる守備側の選手の立ち位置が関係します。

そして、ゴールラインから数えて2番目にいる守備側の選手の位置が最終ラインと呼ばれ、その位置から自陣のゴールラインまでが、オフサイドポジションとなります。

そして、敵の最終ラインより内側のオンサイドにいる味方の選手が、そのポジションにいる攻撃側の選手に対して、パスを出したらオフサイドとなり、パスの受け手側の選手がいた位置から、相手チームの間接フリーキックとなります。

このときに、パスが成功したかどうかは関係ありません。また、味方選手がオンサイドからシュートを放ったときに、キーパーやポストなどに当たってボールがこぼれてきた場合に、オフサイドポジションにいた選手がボールを蹴りに行くなど、チームにとって有利な動きをすれば、ボールに触れなくともオフサイドとなります。

ただ、プレーに参加する意思が見られなければ、オフサイドポジションに攻撃側の選手がいたとしても、プレーは続行されるという点です。

これは、攻撃側の選手も守備側の選手も、理解しておかないと、得点機会を逃したり、失点してしまう可能性があるので要注意です。ちなみにゴールキックやスローイン、コーナーキックはオフサイドは適用されません。

サッカーを面白くする最終ラインでの攻撃・守備選手との駆け引き

サッカーには、オフサイドというルールがあるからこそ、最終ラインでの攻撃側と守備側の駆け引きが激しいものとなります。そして、この攻防こそが、サッカーをさらに面白くする要因にもなっているのです。

最終ラインを上げて戦えば、オフサイドも取りやすくなります。ただ、オフサイドが取れるのはハーフウェイラインまでなので注意が必要です

また、最終ラインを上げることで、中盤をコンパクトに保つことができるため、高い位置でボールを奪いやすく、攻撃がしやすくなります。

しかし、その反面で最終ラインから自陣のゴールまでのスペースが広すぎ、カウンター攻撃を受けやすいため、失点のリスクが高くなります。ただ、中盤から積極的にプレスをしかける守備をすれば、失点のリスクも減らせます。

最終ラインを下げて戦えば、相手に裏を取られる心配が少ないという利点もあります。ただ、ボールを取り返す位置が低くなるため、素早い攻撃に転じることが難しいです。

また相手に押し込まれて、ミドルシュートなどを多く打たれる可能性が高まります。ただ、オフサイドを効果的に取るためにも、最終ラインは最低でもペナルティーエリアの外側に書かれている、半円状のエリアであるペナルティアーク付近までで、耐え抜くことが必要になります。

このように、最終ライン付近での攻撃側選手と守備側選手との駆け引きは、試合の展開を大きく左右します。

そして、これらの攻守の駆け引きにおいて最大の鍵であり、一瞬で相手チームの攻撃の芽を摘むことができるオフサイドは、サッカーの戦術上で、とても重要なウエートを占めるものになっているのです。

サッカーにおけるオフサイドの重要性

比較的に簡単なサッカーの基本ルールの中でも、最も複雑なルールといっても過言ではないオフサイドですが、サッカーが得点が入りにくいスポーツであることから、こういったルールは不要と考える人も多いのも事実です。

ただ、このルールは競技者や観戦者にとって、サッカーが面白くて魅力的なスポーツであると感じさせるためには、必要不可欠なルールであるとも考えられるのです。

このルールは簡単に言えば、ゴール前での待ち伏せ行為を禁止するために、作られたものなのです。

得点をするためだけに、ゴール前に常に陣取っている選手を許せば、それに呼応して守備側の選手がその選手をマークすることになります。そうすると、攻撃側のチームは違う選手をゴール付近に配置して、守備側の選手もその選手をマークすることになるはずです。

そして、大袈裟なことを言えば、最終的には完全なマンマークの形で両チームの選手が広いピッチ上を目一杯に散らばることになります。

そして、そのような状態になれば、完全に攻撃する選手と守備をする選手にチームが別れるため、サッカーの醍醐味でもある、最終ラインの攻撃側の選手と、守備側の選手の駆け引きも見られなくなります。

また、オフサイドがなければ、中盤が完全に消滅してしまうため、細かく華麗に繋げるパスサッカーも見られなくなるでしょう。

そして、ボールを奪ったら、前線の選手に向けて単純にボールを蹴り込むだけのロングボール合戦が始まることになるため、サッカーの魅力が半減以下になるかもしれません。

ですから、オフサイドという基本ルールがあることによって、サッカーの攻守における魅力的な攻防を楽しむことができるのです。

そういったことを考えると、オフサイドはサッカーにおいてとても重要なルールなのです。

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