サッカーの基本ルール : PK

サッカーのコートには、ペナルティーエリアと呼ばれる部分があります。

その中で反則を犯した場合、PKが与えられ、ゴールから12ヤード離れたペナルティーマークのところにボールをセットし、審判の合図の下、相手はゴールネットを揺らしにかかります。

つまり、ペナルティーエリアで反則を犯さなければ、PKにはならないということを意味しています。

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どういう時にPKとなってしまうのか

ペナルティーエリア内での反則として、直接フリーキックの対象となる10種類の反則が対象となります。

相手を引っ張る、抑えようとする、相手の動きを妨害しようとするなどの行為をすると間違いなく反則であり、PKとなります。コーナーキックなどで、こうしたことが起こりやすいことから、神経を使います。

ごくまれに、ペナルティーエリア内で、間接フリーキックの対象となる反則を犯してしまうということがあります。この場合、間接フリーキックは、反則が発生した場所からキックをすることになります。

場合によっては、PKよりも近いところからキックをすることになりますが、守備側はほぼ全員、ゴールネットを守る場所に立って守備を行います。

ペナルティーエリア内での間接フリーキックは、プロの試合などではあまり見られませんが、ゴールを埋め尽くすように人が集まり、セカンドタッチでゴールが決まるのを阻止しようと一斉に、壁となった選手がボールに襲い掛かる光景はサッカーの醍醐味でもあります。

PKの成功率は8割程度と言われ、高確率で得点になることがわかります。だからこそ、PKを巡る戦略、駆け引きがとても多いことから、多くの人が注目することになります。

意外と細かく定められているPKのルール

サッカーのPKは、ただゴールを決めればいいということではなく、色々と細かなルールが定められています。まずキッカーは、前に蹴らなければなりません。後ろに蹴って、味方にゴールを決めてもらうというやり方では、認められません。

また、一度触れたキッカーは、誰かが次にボールを触れるまでは、蹴ってはいけないことになっています。 蹴った瞬間、インプレーになりますが、その前に何かしらの出来事があった場合には、やり直しを命じられることがあります。

その原因がキッカーにあれば、ゴールが決まればやり直し、決まらなければ間接フリーキックで相手ボールとなり、守備側にあれば、その逆の形で行います。

これらを巡り、何度もPKを止めたにもかかわらず、そのたびにやり直しを命じられ、ゴールが決まれば何事もなかったかのように、成立させる審判がいて物議を醸すなど、審判の裁量がかなり問われるのがPKであり、基本ルールにも書かれていない部分での、駆け引きが展開されることになります。

その審判が、PKのルールに関する適用ミスをしてしまうケースもまれにあります。本来であれば、PKのやり直しでよかったものを、間接フリーキックとしてしまい、後になって再試合になるということが過去にありました。

このように、審判であってもルールの適用ミスが発生するほど、PKのルールというものは細かく、間違いやすいものとなっています。

サッカーの試合を大きく動かすだけに間違いは許されず、この間違いをし、結果的に再試合にさせてしまった審判は、後に国際審判の資格を無期限停止にさせられる制裁を受けています。

PKにおける変わったキックと戦略

サッカーの試合でPKを見る場合、たいていはちょっとした距離からの助走からキックするというのが一般的です。しかし、意表を突くために、キッカーが工夫を凝らすことがよくあります。

チップキックと呼ばれる、いきなりボールを浮かして意表を突いてから、キックするやり方は有名です。日本代表でも活躍した遠藤保仁選手の十八番とされたのが、コロコロキックです。

相手の動きだけを見て、その逆にゆっくり蹴りこむというもので、8割と言われていた成功率を9割に高め、国際大会でも数多くのゴールをこれで決めてきました。

ただ、あまりに有名になったことで、なかなかこの手が使えなくなっているのが実情です。

基本ルールとして、禁止になったものとしてフェイントがあります。蹴ると見せかけて蹴らないというフェイントは、厳格な運用がされる前は認められていましたが、後に禁止されました。

Jリーグでもあったのが、タップペナルティです。2人のキッカーが連動して行うやり方であり、1人目が軽く前方に蹴り、もう1人が後ろから蹴りこむというものです。

前に蹴っているため、反則ではなく、日本でも実際に見ることができました。一方、ペナルティーマークにボールを置く選手と、キッカーはバラバラでいいものの、誰がキッカーかを明確にしておくことが、基本ルールとして定められています。

このため、キッカーが明確ではない中、タップペナルティが行われれば反則ということになります。

Jリーグでは、本来反則として処理すべきところをそのまま流し、ゴールとして認めてしまい、後に誤審判定として審判が処分を受けることがありました。

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