サッカーの基本ルール : 審判

サッカーの基本ルールを知り、公正公平に試合をジャッジし、コントロールするのが審判です。

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サッカーにおける4人の審判の役割

原則として、サッカーの審判は4人存在し、主審、副審、第4の審判が存在します。

主審が基本的に試合をコントロールする役割を担っており、警告、退場の指示、試合の中止や停止、中断の権限、アドバンテージなどを判断することになります。

副審は2人存在し、タッチラインのところで試合に参加します。オフサイドの判定やコーナーキック、ゴールキックの判断、競技者の交代などを旗を使ってジャッジするのが、基本的な職務です。

第4の審判は、主審を支援する立ち位置であり、アディショナルタイムの時間の表示などを行うのも、第4の審判が務めます。

第4の審判は、場合によっては必要がないこともあることから、カテゴリー別の、ユースの試合では、主審と副審の3人が試合をコントロールすることもあります。

特に主審は、かなりの体力が求められます。これはサッカー選手と同じだけの距離を移動し、同じだけのスピードで走らなければならないためです。

しかも、広いピッチ上で起きた出来事を正確にジャッジをする必要があり、ミスが許されない立場であり、国際試合でいわゆる誤審をすると、国を巻き込んだ騒動に発展する恐れもある、かなり責任を伴う職業です。

近年、ゴール判定を巡る問題から、ゴール付近に専用の審判を置く、いわゆる追加副審という制度が一部で始まり、テクノロジーを使わずに判定を行う試合では、副審が4人いる状態となります。

日本では一般的ではありませんが、主にヨーロッパで採用されているやり方です。

国際サッカー審判員になるまでの果てしない道

ワールドカップなどの審判を務めるには、国際サッカー審判員になる必要があります。国際サッカー審判員はFIFAが管轄しており、条件として各国のサッカー協会が管轄するサッカー公認審判員になり、そこで1級のライセンスを取り、その中で優秀な成績を残し、推薦されなければ務めることはできません。

サッカー公認審判員は4級から存在し、各都道府県のサッカー協会が認定します。年数回の講習会を受けてなることができ、4級ライセンスを取得すれば、都道府県のサッカー協会の傘下団体が主催する試合の主審、副審を務めることが可能となり、場合によって都道府県のサッカー協会が主催する試合の副審ができます。

子供の試合などでジャッジする時などに、おすすめです。

4級より上となると、4級での経験が3級で求められ、3級での経験、時間が2級で求められるということになっていきます。その都度、基本ルールに関する筆記テストなどを受けて、パスしなければなりません。

2級までは女性、男性どちらも同じ道となりますが、女性に限っては、女子1級審判員という道もあります。女子の大会で主審を務めることができ、場合によっては日本サッカー協会主催の試合で副審ができます。

いわゆる、Jリーグで審判をするには、1級審判員になることが必須です。1級審判員の中でランク分けが行われ、振り分けが行われます。そこで結果を出した人が、いよいよ世界の舞台に立てます。

そうしたことから、すぐに世界に立つということはかなり難しく、多くの人が下積みを重ねて、4級からキャリアをスタートさせていき、世界を目指します。

サッカーの審判に向く人とはどういう人か

ジャッジをする人は、常に毅然とした態度を取る必要があります。また、いつまでも引きずっていると、後でさらなる誤審を引き起こす恐れがあるため、すぐに切り替えられる心の持ち主であることも求められます。

当然ながら、サッカーの基本ルールを熟知しており、間違った解釈で試合を進めることのないようにしていくことも必要です。審判には、絶大な権力が与えられており、それによって試合をコントロールすることができます。

しかし、裏を返せば、絶対に間違ってはならず、それでいて謙虚な姿勢が求められます。少しでも横暴な態度を出してしまえば、誰も相手をせず、試合が壊れ、キャリアも台無しです。

常に責任感を持ち、いつでも辞める覚悟を持てるかどうかも大事になります。また、細かい所作を心がけることができるかどうかも、向いてる向いていないを左右します。

腕の上げ方や間接フリーキックの指示など、本当に細かいことが多く、それが嫌でジャッジの仕事を目指すのを辞めたという人もいます。

神経質な人が、案外こうした職業が向いており、選手の服装がなってない、ダラダラしているなどの面を見て、躊躇なくイエローカードを出すということも、神経質な人だからこそできる面があります。

自分の子供がサッカーを始めたから、自分はジャッジをする側に回るというお父さんも珍しくなく、休日には子供と一緒にピッチを駆け回るという人もいます。

また、周りからのヤジのような声にも動じず、堂々と振る舞い、人間関係を気にせず毅然とした態度をとるということも大事です。

国際的な仕事を目指す人も、その舞台からキャリアを始めます。

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