水泳の基礎知識:4つの泳ぎ方 ~ 背泳ぎ ~

水泳には、泳ぎ方が4つあります。最も簡単で単純な動きをするのが、クロールです。

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水泳における4つの泳ぎ方について

クロールとはバタ足で、体の横で手を左右交互に水をかきながら進む泳ぎ方です。クロールは、初心者にでもやりやすい泳ぎ方なので、スイミングスクールなどでは、四泳法のうち一番早く教えているところが多いです。

クロールをするときのポイントとしては、まずバタ足を、ももから動かすということ、そして、手で水をかくときにしっかりと前に伸びていくことが挙げられます。

次に、背泳ぎです。

背泳ぎは上を向き、クロールと同じような動きをします。足はバタ足で進み、手を左右交互に回します。クロールよりも水を強くかくことが出来ないため、なかなか前へ進みません。

また、体に余計な力が入っていると体が沈んでしまうので、必要でない体の力はきちんと抜いて、リラックスしながら泳ぐように心がけます。

この時のバタ足も、なるべくももから動かすように意識します。

次に平泳ぎです。

平泳ぎは、クロールや背泳ぎとは動き方が異なります。手と足を交互に動かします。足は足首をしっかりと立てて、速く閉じるようにします。手は体の前で回し、あまり大きく回しすぎないように気をつけます。

平泳ぎで最も大切なポイントは、水をかいた後にしっかりと伸びきることです。この伸びが足りないと、なかなか前へすすみません。

最後はバタフライです。

バタフライは、独特な動き方をします。イルカのような体の使い方をします。手は両手同時に回すので、力が必要です。バタフライは、上級者向けの泳法なのでとても難しいのです。

バタフライでは、しっかりと体を持ち上げなければ呼吸ができないので、そこを気をつけて泳ぎます。

水泳四泳法のなかの背泳ぎについて

背泳ぎは、苦手意識を持っている人がとても多い泳法です。なぜなら、呼吸が非常にやりにくいからです。上を向いているので、顔が少しでも沈めば呼吸はできなくなるし、自分で回した手についている水滴が、顔にかかることもあります。

鼻にもよく水が入る泳法なので、背泳ぎを嫌う人が多いのです。背泳ぎをうまく泳ぐためには、上を向いたまま、バタ足をする練習から始めます。ビート板を両手でかかえ、ももから動かすようにバタ足をします。

この時、足の親指がかすれそうな意識を持って取り組みます。あまり大きく足を動かさなくて良いので、軽い水しぶきが立つくらいを目安にして練習します。

それができるようになったら、次はビート板をなしにして、同じことをやってみます。手の位置は上に伸ばし、頭を手ではさむようにしておきます。必要以上に体に力を入れないように、気をつけて泳ぎます。

へそが沈んでしまうと、まっすぐ綺麗に泳ぐことが出来ないので、へそを沈めないように注意します。体を水面から沈めないよう、まっすぐの姿勢で泳ぎます。それが出来るようになったら、次は手を回します。

手は1で最初の手をあげ、2で次の、反対の手をあげます。手はまっすぐ上に向かってあげ、小指から引っ張るようにあげます。そうすることで、次の水をかく時にやりやすくなるのです。

片方の手を回し終わってから、もう反対の手を回すのではなく、1、2、1、2、のリズムをしっかりととりながら、泳ぐように気をつけます。

手を回しても、体に入っている余計な力はなるべく抜き、リラックスしながら、きちんと呼吸をして泳ぐようにします。

背泳ぎで速く泳ぐ時のポイントについて

水泳で一般的に知られている四泳法のうち、最も苦手な人が多い泳法が背泳ぎである理由の一つとして、呼吸のしにくさが挙げられます。

背泳ぎは体が沈みやすい泳ぎ方で、水泳の他の泳法に比べると、沈まずに泳ぐのが難しい泳ぎ方です。ただでさえ沈みやすいので、綺麗に呼吸をしようとするのは大変です。

背泳ぎで速く泳ぐためのポイントは、呼吸をする時を決めることです。背泳ぎは他の泳法と異なり、顔が常に水中から出ています。しかし、だからといって常に呼吸できるわけでは決してないのです。

他の泳法と同様に、自分が呼吸をするタイミングをしっかりとつくり、呼吸をする時以外は鼻から息を吐きながら泳ぎます。また、呼吸は鼻でするのではなく、口でするようにします。

そうすることで、鼻に水が入ることを防ぐことが出来るのです。鼻に水が入らないだけで、背泳ぎへのイメージが良い方向へ大きく変わります。

次に背泳ぎのタイムを伸ばすためには、スタートの練習をします。スタートは、壁に腹を向けた状態で壁に足の裏をつけ、膝を曲げて小さくなったところから始めます。

最初は、勢いよく蹴り出さなければいけないのですが、ただ壁を蹴るだけではいけません。水中に手、頭の順で静かに入ることができるようにするために、斜め上に蹴って、体をそらすようにして飛び込みます。

飛び込んだ後は、しっかりと伸びながら自然と顔が水面に出るまで我慢します。このときに鼻からしっかりと息を吐かなければ鼻に水が入ってしまうので気をつけます。

最初のスタートは、タイムを伸ばすためにはとても重要なポイントとなるので、しっかりとできるようになるまで、何回も練習するようにします。

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