水泳の悩み…背泳ぎでタイムが伸びない

背泳ぎを初めて行う人にありがちなのは、頭が壁にぶつかる、鼻に水が入るなどですが、これらは様々な工夫や経験で、すぐに何とかなります。

ただ、体が沈んでしまうというのは、複合的な要因によって発生するため、その結果、スピードが出ず、タイムも縮めることができないということになってしまいます。

また、最初のスタートで、できるだけ長い間水中に頭を入れて潜水する、いわゆるバサロのような泳法も必要であり、それが不十分だと、なかなかタイムが出ないということも考えられます。

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体を浮かすことが何より大切である

背泳ぎをする際の基本的なフォームとしては、アゴを引き、ヘソを見るような形にしておくというものです。これだと鼻に水が入るということもなければ、腰が折れて下半身が沈み込むということもなくなります。

アゴを上げてしまうと、途端に上体が起き上がり、下半身が沈んでしまいます。こうなるとタイムが落ち、リカバーもなかなかききません。水泳の中では、息継ぎのしやすさという点で簡単という要素はあるものの、空気を入れるたびに体が浮きやすくなるため、腕を回すタイミングも考慮する必要があります。

オリンピックで、背泳ぎを泳ぐ水泳選手を見ればわかるように、ガムシャラに腕を回している人はまずいません。素人目に見れば、若干遅く回しているのではないかと思うくらいの腕の速さで泳いでいます。

キックの速さ、潜水で距離を稼ぐなど、様々な要素があり、腕のまわし方でいかに距離を稼ぐかというのが、間違っているかがわかります。

タイムが出ないという人は、腕をひたすら動かしているだけで、他の要素が出来ていない可能性も考えないといけません。

背泳ぎに存在する2種類のキック

背泳ぎは、クロールを裏返したようなものという認識であり、決して間違いではありませんが、違うポイントとして、キックの種類があります。

クロールは1種類しかありませんが、背泳ぎの場合は2種類のキックが存在します。まずは、ダウンキックです。

ダウンキックは、浮力を得るために必要なものであり、これがないことには体を浮かし続けることができません。ヒザを伸ばし、強く意識して下に蹴り込むことで浮力を得ることになります。

次にアップキックです。アップキックは名前の通り、上に蹴り込むようなキックとなり、これでスピードを出します。ダウンキックとアップキックをうまく組み合わせることで、浮力を得ながら推進力を生むということが可能です。

割合としては、ダウンキックが若干多めぐらいがちょうどよく、どちらかが多くても推進力が得られなかったり、体が沈みがちになったりしてしまいます。

クロールは、アップキックだけしかありませんが、体が沈み込む可能性が低いことがその要因です。

2つのキックに共通していることは、膝を伸ばし、力を入れずにキックするということにあります。いわゆるキックの練習をし、膝を伸ばしながら、力を入れずに行うことを意識して行っていくことが必要です。

背泳ぎのキックは、単に量だけこなせばいいのではなく、キックの状態や、力の入り具合などを見ながら練習を行い、効率的に行うことが求められます。

背泳ぎで、体が沈んでしまうという人は、ダウンキックがうまくできていないため、キックに何かしらの欠陥、問題がある場合には、それを改善するだけで水泳におけるタイムが向上します。

背泳ぎにおける腕の動きをチェックする

水泳ではストロークが大事になりますが、背泳ぎでもそれは同じことです。ポイントとしては、水をどれだけつかみ、かき出せるかに着目することをおすすめします。

水泳選手を見ればわかるように、腕の動きはまるで半円を描くようにきれいであり、全体的に腕が伸びています。ストロークの際に腕を伸ばし、一直線に水の中に入れて、水をかき出しまわすことでスピードが出やすくなります。

この時、体の軸をブレないようにさせておくことが非常に重要です。

背泳ぎの腕のまわし方には2つあり、ストレートプルとS字プルの2つがあります。ストレートプルは、腕を一直線にし、耳の後方まで上げてからそこで真横に腕を下ろし、太ももにつけるような軌道を描きます。

S字プルは、腕を一直線に上げるところまではストレートプルと変わりないですが、耳の後方で止めず、腕を頭まで超して水中まで入れ、そこから、まるで何かを投げるように、水をかくというのがS字プルです。

S字プルの由来は、そのかき方がSをかいているように見えるため、そのように言われています。

このように、泳ぎ方は2種類、キックも2種類となります。腕の回し方も単に回すのではなく、ストレートプルなのか、それともS字プルなのかで異なります。

筋肉が硬いと、これらの回し方がぎこちなくなっているということも考えられるため、フォームを今一度確かめることも必要になります。

ただ、背泳ぎは4泳法の中で一番習得しやすいものとされており、細かなところにさえ注意をすればすぐにタイムは伸びます。

後は、鼻に水が入るなどの初歩的なことに注意し、恐怖感を克服すれば怖いものなしです。

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