一度は見に行きたい!世界の有名な博物館いろいろ

世界には、とても貴重な所蔵品を集めた博物館が、多くあります。

教科書で見たあの遺跡品や、写真で見たあの絵画が、そこでは実際に展示されています。

ぜひ一度は見に行きたい、そんな世界の有名博物館を5館ご紹介します。

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世界一のコレクション 大英博物館(イギリス)

ロンドンの大英博物館は、世界で最も有名な博物館といってよいでしょう。

世界各地の美術品、出土品、書籍に至るまで、膨大なコレクションは800万点にものぼります。

展示品は、世界的に貴重なものが目白押しです。最大の見所の1つは、ロゼッタストーンを中心とする、エジプト部門。

それから、パルテノン神殿に飾られていた、大理石彫刻を数多く集めたギリシャ・ローマ部門です。

アッシリアの守護獣神像をはじめとする、メソポタミア関連の展示も充実しており、他にもアジア・アフリカ・アメリカなど、収蔵品の対象は世界各地に及びます。

北斎や応挙など、日本の美術品も収蔵されています。

館内は広く、展示品も多岐にわたるため、一日で見つくすことは不可能だと言われています。

これは絶対に見たい!というポイントを絞ってコースを組み、効率よく鑑賞することがすすめられています。

中華美術の至宝 故宮博物院(台湾)

「故宮博物院」という名前の博物館は、北京と台湾の両方にありますが、より有名なのは、台湾の故宮博物院です。

古代から清朝まで、皇帝のコレクションを中心に、数多くの貴重な収蔵品が集められています。古代中国の出土品や書、絵画、工芸など、コレクションの質・量の充実は圧倒的です。

特に名高い所蔵品が、大きな翡翠を彫刻して、白菜そっくりにかたどった「翠玉白菜」です。

宝石としての希少性と、白菜の葉脈まで再現した、見事な彫刻技術とが融合した、まさに至宝といえる作品です。

以前、この翠玉白菜が日本で展示された際は、大変な待ち時間となり、「台湾に行ったほうが早い」とさえ言われました。

他にも、有名な所蔵品には、肉の角煮と見まごうばかりの彫刻、「肉形石」があります。

故宮博物院も大変広く、展示数が多い博物館ですので、見たい作品とその場所をチェックしてから行くのがよいとされています。

憧れのお宝に大興奮 スミソニアン博物館(アメリカ)

アメリカのワシントンD.Cにある、スミソニアン博物館も世界的に有名です。

ひとつの館のみではなく、科学・産業・自然史を中心に、いくつかの博物館・研究施設が、スミソニアン博物館を構成しています。

有名な収蔵品は、45.5カラットのホープ・ダイヤモンド。持ち主が呪われるという、いわくつきの巨大ダイヤです。

また、恐竜の化石を展示した部屋は、大空間にさまざまな恐竜の化石が、臨場感いっぱいに並び、一番人気の場所になっています。

他にも、リンカーンが暗殺された時に着用していた帽子や、歴代のファーストレディのドレスなど、アメリカ史における貴重な品々を多数収蔵。

また航空・宇宙関連の展示では、ライト兄弟が製作した飛行機から、アポロ11号の司令船、スペースシャトルまでが網羅されています。

美術面では、ラファエルの絵画やフェルメールの「天秤を持つ女」が有名です。

展示分野によって館が分散しているため、どの展示物がどの館に収蔵されているか、行く前のチェックは必須です。

美術館とは双子同士 ウィーン自然史博物館(オーストリア)

ウィーン自然史博物館は、マリア・テレジアの夫である、フランツ1世のコレクションを起源とする、世界屈指の博物館のひとつです。

この博物館の見所は、まずは建物それ自体。まるで、王宮のような壮麗な建築物です。

その中には、古代遺跡の出土品や、恐竜の化石、隕石や動植物の標本・剥製などが、ずらりと並んでいます。

特に有名なものは、「ヴィレンドルフのヴィーナス」と呼ばれる、ふくよかな女性の形をした、古代遺跡の出土品。

世界史の教科書で、見たことがある人も多いかと思います。

博物館の向かいには、中庭をはさんでほぼ同じ形をした建物の「ウィーン美術史美術館」があります。

こちらは、美術品を中心に収蔵しており、特に「バベルの塔」をはじめとする、ブリューゲルのコレクションは随一です。

他にも、ラファエロの「草原の聖母」や、フェルメールの「絵画芸術」など、著名な名画が満載されています。

華麗なイスラム建築を堪能 トプカプ宮殿博物館(トルコ)

トルコのイスタンブール、ボスポラス海峡に面した、丘の上に位置するのがトプカプ宮殿博物館です。

ここは、かつて繁栄を極めた、オスマン帝国の歴代スルタンの居城でした。現在は、建物自体を公開し、スルタンが集めた宝物類を、展示しています。

見所のひとつは、建物内部のイスラム様式のタイル装飾です。

宮殿の一角には、スルタンの私室と、後宮の女性達の居場所であったハレムの建物があり、部屋の内部は壁から天井まで、モザイクタイルで埋め尽くされています。

その精密にして豪華な装飾には、目をみはるばかりです。

宝物館には、宝飾品や玉座、装飾された武具、華麗な食器などが展示されています。

86カラットのダイヤを、さらに49個のダイヤでふち取った「スプーン職人のダイヤモンド」、黄金に輝く「ナディールの玉座」、大きな3つのエメラルドが柄に飾られた「トプカプの短刀」などが有名です。

最後に

絵画や美術品を、実際に目にした時の感動は、写真とはやはり違います。

実物のサイズ感や質感、細かい部分の装飾、かもしだす臨場感などは、直接行ってみなければ味わえません。

一度は訪れて、心ゆくまで実物を体感してみたいですね。

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